In addition, he must be well-versed in critical thinking methods and have a well-rounded, comprehensive christian world view by which he can judge everything he learns and experiences, including what he learns and experiences in psychology. Jones and Butman urge, what we need in evaluating models of counseling and psychotherapy is clear thinking about our presuppositions, our views of humanity, and our moral standards and how to apply these to real situations. While we must be careful about being overly dogmatic and rigid, good evaluation is brutally honest about the realities of the human condition in all their tragic complexities. We need guidelines on how to think clearly, critically and courageously.13. Foundations of contemporary psychotherapies, three main branches of psychotherapy have provided the foundation for the myriad of contemporary psychotherapeutic techniques, theories, and assumptions: dynamic psychologies, behavioral psychologies, and humanistic psychologies.14 Additionally, many psychotherapists seem to pick and choose varieties of elements from any or all. Dynamic Psychologies, sigmund Freud, a late nineteenth-century neurologist-psychiatrist, developed a system of clinical practice called psychoanalysis that focused on introspection — by the therapist concerning himself, and then in a clinical setting by the client with the aid of a therapist, called an analyst. Freuds theory of personality included the idea of two mental states, the conscious and the unconscious; and the specialized personal aspects of ego, superego, and.
Skinner Operant Conditioning simply Psychology
So, there is no evidence that psychotherapy is the solution to everyones problems, and no way to tell how many helpful psychotherapy techniques are simply the tools of ordinary wholesome relationships and how many are unique to psychotherapy. Psychologist and critic of psychology. Paul Vitz summarizes: Psychology overpromised and underproduced; engineer that is, everybody thought that if they studied psychology or saw a therapist, theyd be happy ever after — but that didnt happen.11. The second frustration is that research has been unable to support the superiority of one school of therapy over another. In other words, almost any nondestructive kind of therapy will produce this statistic of moderate success. Limited research support is available that certain broad kinds of therapy seem to be more effective for certain kinds of problems than others.12 One of the problems with this kind of research is that many therapists are eclectic — that is, they use techniques and. Pragmatism (Do whatever works!) seems to be the standard for determining the technique or approach for any client at any given time. A christian who attempts to use psychology within a framework of biblical movie principles for personal counseling faces unique challenges and a myriad of pitfalls: he (or she) must discern what complements, illustrates, applies, and adds knowledge to biblical principles and what rivals or contradicts them. It is entirely insufficient to assume, as so many Christian therapists do, that a good education in psychology and a born-again experience is all it takes to produce a sound Christian therapy practice. Such a christian must be better prepared in theology, biblical interpretation, and principles of Christian discipleship than he is in psychology.
This with conclusion flatly contradicted the common assumptions of the day, since at the time a 6070 success rate was being reported by most well-known psychology clinics.10 This study is still cited by many critics of psychotherapy, even though many studies done since then have concluded. What is most striking about later research regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy, however, is that it shows almost uniformly that psychotherapy is, at best, moderately helpful. Furthermore, none of the research presents an unambiguous, generally accepted description of what constitutes helpful and how much change toward what ends constitutes progress. The values and assumptions of the therapists, clients, and researchers all color this assessment. For example, a christian might encourage a fearful friend to trust in the lord while a secular therapist might discourage dependence on some mythological father-god figure to overcome fear in favor of affirming ones own autonomy. Which case represents helpful change for the better? Additionally, the research has not been based on test groups isolated from all other possible influences (clergy, relatives, friends, books, etc.). We shouldnt wonder at this, since so much of psychotherapy, especially Christian psychotherapy, also involves common sense, experience, clarification, friendship, understanding, and support — all factors present in varying degrees in almost all ongoing interpersonal relationships.
One of the most significant features of Freuds system — mirrored in almost all subsequent psychotherapies — is its amalgamation of the science of psychology real with the therapists presuppositions, the accumulated common sense of therapist/client interaction, and the pragmatism of subjectively successful client therapy. This frequently inconsistent process of amalgamation distinguishes most psychotherapy from the empirical focus of contemporary science, although, as we discussed in Part Two, a strict empiricism is inadequate as a comprehensive philosophy of science. Two frustrating problems psychotherapy advocates face should be mentioned before we examine the foundations of contemporary psychotherapies. The first problem involves success rates. Despite its acceptance as a scientific discipline, more than a century of psychologizing, its blatant promotion as a wonder drug, and public confidence in its curative powers, most of the comprehensive data available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy shows that its success is much more. The most oft-cited study asserting the ineffectiveness of psychotherapy was published in 1952. He used insurance company files as a research base from which he concluded that almost three-quarters of those diagnosed as psychoneurotic improved over a two-year period regardless of whether or not they received professional psychological intervention.
For the first time science was divorced from philosophy and became an academic governing system itself. Science in the main did not support those assumptions with a foundation of belief in an infinite, personal, benevolent Creator-God. Instead, it promoted naturalism (i.e., there is no supernatural realm) concerning the real world; empiricism concerning methods for discovering truth; physicalism concerning human nature (i.e., humans are fundamentally material beings with mental aspects as part of, or produced by, the brain and secular humanism concerning. As we described in Part One, psychology shifted orientation from philosophy to science toward the end of the nineteenth century. This occurred when Wilhelm Wundt founded a psychological testing center or laboratory in leipzig, germany, and brought psychology to the status of an independent scientific, academic discipline in 1879. While psychology was developing its scientific foundation, some of its assumptions and principles began to be used in therapeutic settings, most notably by the father of modern psychotherapy, sigmund Freud. Contemporary psychotherapies developed afterward either from, or in contrast to, freuds grand theories of psychoanalysis.
John Watson and Behaviorism: Theory & Experiment - video
Psychology is defined in a leading Christian textbook as the scientific study of the behavior and thinking of e study of how living creatures interact with their environment and each other, and how they cope (successfully or unsuccessfully) with that environment.3 given this broad definition. Psychotherapy focuses on the use of psychology to help people cope with their problems. Stanton Jones essay and Richard Butman, in Modern Psychotherapies: a comprehensive christian Appraisal, give a good broad definition focusing on technique rather than type: The common techniques all psychotherapists seem to use (though with differing frequencies) include (1) offering reassurance and support, (2) desensitizing the client. Some observers distinguish between psychotherapy and counseling.6 However, such distinctions have blurred over the years, are not recognized by most people who seek psychotherapy, and serve no useful purpose in our present survey. Here we will operate from the commonly held assumption that psychotherapy and counseling are fairly synonymous unless specifically distinguished in a particular circumstance.7.
History of psychotherapy, it may be helpful to consider the history of psychotherapy8 with the analogy of nesting dolls. Just as a large wooden Russian folk doll can be opened to reveal a smaller one, which is opened to reveal an even smaller doll, and so on, so can the history of psycho-therapy be viewed. The largest doll would represent the post-Reformation philosophy of science, with the next smaller doll representing psychology, and the smallest doll representing psychotherapy. This article merely mentions the larger dolls while it focuses on the smallest.9 After the reformation, during the rise of secular enlightenment, world views were developed and articulated that did not include any idea of theism or Christian theology. Post-Reformation, nontheistic world views abandoned theism as the foundation for expecting orderliness in nature, and for expecting that the tools of reason could be used to understand what was observed empirically (i.e., by the senses, by physical observation or testing).
Fifth (most surprising to us we discovered that even most of the Christian therapists and therapies focused more on a collection of practices and theories isolated from a comprehensive world view than on that world view. And sixth, we learned firsthand that anyone who pronounces a universal blessing or a universal condemnation on psychotherapy has failed to understand its complexity and diversity. Unless we define terms adequately, understand the history and foundations of psychotherapy, and carefully evaluate its theories and assumptions, misrepresentation is almost certain. The present article cannot address this vast subject comprehensively, but it will illuminate some of the broad patterns of contemporary psychology, highlight some of the foundational concerns Christians should have concerning psychotherapy, and view some of the ways Christian therapists have attempted to relate contemporary. Many secular psychologists have strong criticisms of various aspects of contemporary psychology,1 but since this series is narrowly focused on psychology and the church, we will limit our citations primarily to Christian authors.2.
Psychology and psychotherapy, because psychotherapy is much more visible and directly touches many more lives than do other aspects of psychology (such as educational testing for many people psychology is equivalent to psychotherapy. The word psychology derives from two Greek terms meaning the study of persons. Some argue that since the Greek root from which we get psych means spirit or soul, psychology is religious in nature and involves the study of the spirit or soul. However, one must realize that because of the evolving nature of language, word origin or etymology does not necessarily point to what the word means in contemporary usage. Those who use the term psychology today do not generally mean to make any religious statements about the human spirit or soul, but instead are referring to the nontangible personal aspects of human beings, whether they conceive of these aspects as byproducts of the brain. Christians call this aspect soul or spirit, and certainly the bible affirms the reality of the immaterial human nature as soul or spirit. Even biblically speaking, however, a significant function of this immaterial aspect involves reasoning, communicating, experiencing emotions, memory, and social interaction, all of which can be studied to some degree without focus on ones relationship with God.
Abstract - management Methods
For Christian therapy (counseling) to be truly helpful and biblically based, it must start from the firm biblical foundation of a christian world view, with each technique part of a coherent biblical paradigm. Like a carnival sideshow lane, the garish booths stretched almost as far as we could see under the harsh arena lights. Neuro-linguistic programming, dance therapy, past-life regression, hypnotically enhanced eating disorder programs, horneyian therapy, multiple impact therapy, multiple personality disorder therapies, and multiple multiples of other therapies all clamored for attention as we strolled the national professional psychotherapy convention. Wed come to indulge our own proclivity for academic research reports and scholarly philosophizing, but we also came to some interesting and sometimes surprising conclusions. First, almost everyone we talked to had a genuine concern for people with problems and an earnest desire to devote their lives to helping others. Second, there were more therapies, theories, and techniques than there were therapists. Third, the practicing therapists approached reviews their science very differently than did their academic and research counterparts, basing many of their convictions on subjective experience rather than rigorous testing or critical evaluation. Fourth, while the range of therapies and therapists touched almost every conceivable extreme, some therapies and therapists reflected well-reasoned, carefully explored, comprehensive theories of personal dynamics.
Through developments such as the theory of the self-organization of systems, it attains major significance for many of the current concerns of psychology. Compare also: System Dynamics, organizational learning, organic Organization, levels of Culture. Brainstorming, six Thinking Hats, more management models. Summary, an examination of the foundations of psychotherapy homework raises concerns about whether Christianity can be compatible with a system based on naturalistic, nontheistic, secular humanism. While most psychotherapeutic techniques are rooted in one of three main categories of psychotherapy, most psychotherapists are eclectic, using anything that appears to work — regardless of the techniques compatibility with their primary psychotherapeutic philosophy. This allows for Christians to reject techniques incompatible with a christian world view and to use techniques they can reconcile to a christian world view, but it does not promote a unified, coherent philosophy of therapy. Studies show that, at best, psychotherapy is moderately helpful, and that most people get better without any professional counseling at all.
Connections among psychological contents are more readily and more permanently created on the basis of substantive concrete relationships than by sheer repetition and reinforcement. Thinking and problem solving are characterized by appropriate substantive organization, restructuring, and centering of the given insight in the direction of the desired solution. In memory, structures based on associative connections are elaborated and differentiated according to a tendency for optimal organization. Cognitions which an individual cannot integrate lead to an experience of dissonance and to cognitive processes directed at reducing this dissonance. In a supra-individual whole such as a group, there is a tendency toward specific relationships in the interaction of strengths and needs. The epistemological orientation of gt tends to be a kind of critical realism. Methodologically, the attempt is to achieve a meaningful integration of experimental and phenomenological procedures (the experimental-phenomenological method ). Crucial phenomena are examined without reduction of experimental precision. Gt is to be understood not as a static scientific position, but as a paradigm that is continuing to develop.
Two directions are involved: getting a whole consistent picture, and seeing what the presentation structure of the whole requires for the parts.". Human beings are viewed as open systems in active interaction with their environment. According to wertheimer in 1924 (Über Gestalttheorie) there are wholes, the behavior of which is not determined by that of their individual elements, but where the part-processes are themselves determined by the intrinsic nature of the whole. It is the hope of gt to determine the nature of such wholes. In other words, gt holds "there are wholes which, instead of being the sum of parts existing independently, give their parts specific functions or properties that can only be defined in relation to the whole in question" (Wolfgang Köhler). Gt is especially suited for the understanding of order and structure in psychological events, and has its origins in some orientations of Johann Wolfgang von goethe, ernst Mach, and particularly of Christian von Ehrenfels and the research work of Max Wertheimer, wolfgang Köhler, kurt Koffka. The coming to power of national socialism substantially interrupted the fruitful scientific development of Gestalt theory in the german-speaking world; Koffka, wertheimer, köhler and Lewin emigrated, or were forced to flee, to the United States. Gestalt theory is not limited only to the concept of the gestalt or the whole, or to the gestalt principles of the organization of perception (as it is presented in many publications but must be understood as essentially far broader and more encompassing: The primacy.
Skinner, human behavior is controlled
Gestalt Theory (GT) is a broadly interdisciplinary general theory which provides a framework for literature a wide variety of psychological phenomena, processes, and applications. The focus of gt is the idea of " grouping. E., characteristics of stimuli cause us to structure or interpret a visual field or problem in a certain way (Max Wertheimer, 1922). The primary factors that determine grouping are: (1) proximity - elements tend to be grouped together according to their nearness, (2) similarity - items similar in some respect tend to be grouped together, (3) closure - items are grouped together if they tend to complete. These factors are called the laws of organization and are explained in the context of perception and problem-solving. The essence of successful problem-solving behavior according to wertheimer is being able to see the overall structure of the problem : "A certain region in the field becomes crucial, is focused; but it does not become isolated. A new, deeper structural view of the situation develops, involving changes in functional meaning, the grouping, etc. Directed by what is required by the structure of a situation for a crucial region, one is led to a reasonable prediction, which like the other parts of the structure, calls for verification, direct or indirect.