With its description of the marginal figure rather than the dominant class of the times, Almeida's novel is credited as the first to introduce Brazil's version of the trickster ( trickster tale ) ( malandro a figure who operates between order and disorder and who. ( see also trickster tale.) Emergence of the republic Although the schools of Brazilian realism and naturalism manifested themselves almost concurrently, joaquim Maria machado de Assis ( Machado de Assis, joaquim Maria ) dominated the literary scene by developing a mordant social critique of rio. A lower-class mulato (of mixed African and European ancestry) from rio, machado de Assis grew up in a cultured household where his parents were servants, and he eventually ascended the sociocultural ladder. Employing a narrative style considered modern—given his deft use of point of view, first-person narration, and subtle irony—machado de Assis broadened the horizon of the Brazilian novel with Mem órias póstumas de Brás Cubas (1881; The posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas; Eng. Epitaph of a small Winner the capricious upper-class cynical and intrusive narrator of which speaks from the grave, and with Dom Casmurro (1899; Eng. Dom Casmurro a fictional autobiography by a narrator who suspects his wife of adultery, an act never proved to have actually occurred, owing to the novel's first-person narration.
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Magalhães is also known as one of the initial figures to encourage the theme of Indianism ( Indianista novel ). The great novelist and statesman José de Alencar ( Alencar, josé de considered the romantic writer par excellence, was also an Indianist, a trait evident in his historical novel O guaraní (1857; The guaraní). A historical work set in Brazil and modeled on the novels minute of James Fenimore cooper and Sir Walter Scott, it focuses on the guaraní as the hero of a mythical "medieval" colonial past. Alencar also wrote numerous regionalist and urban novels, the latter using profiles of bold women to portray 19th-century society in rio de janeiro. In these novels Alencar reveals strong powers of observation that are very suggestive of realism; some scholars regard what might be called Alencar's Romantic realism as having influenced the greatest of Brazil's 19th-century novelists, joaquim Maria machado de Assis ( Machado de Assis, joaquim Maria. The most renowned poet of Romantic and Indianist verse is Antonio gonçalves dias ( Gonçalves dias, Antônio ). His poem Can ção de Exílio (1843; Song of Exile which manifests a deep-rooted nostalgia for his homeland, became a national anthem of sorts. The other significant poet of this period is Antônio de castro Alves ( Castro Alves, Antônio de who wrote antislavery poetry that was later collected in O navio negreiro (1880; The Slave ship) and Os escravos (1883; The Slaves both posthumously published. Prior to machado de Assis, who would become the masterful precursor of the modern Brazilian novel, was another writer, manuel Antônio de Almeida ( Almeida, manuel Antônio de significant for his satirical novel of manners, mem órias de um sargento de milícias (185253; Memoirs. Because it conveys a fanciful tone contrary to the reigning Romantic ideology, this novel of popular humour and folkloric realism is not a true romantic or realist novel.
An important link between the minas school and friend the romantics is the statesman and poet José bonifácio de Andrada e silva ( Andrada e silva, josé bonifácio de known as the patriarch of Brazilian independence, since it was he who counseled the prince regent Dom. The preface to Andrada's poesias avulsas (1825; Sundry papers) is a pre-romantic manifesto condemning Arcadianism's emphasis on reason, order, and formalism and advocating a more original and passionate voice. However, the ideas of science, reason, and progress emanating from the european Enlightenment were still to play a major ideological role in promoting liberalism, a concept incorporated as a foundational ideal for the nation, even though it flourished only for a cultural and intellectual elite. In practice Brazil continued to be a slave-holding society until the 1880s. Nationalism and Romanticism Faced with the invention of a past overshadowed by portuguese control, Brazilians were propelled by the themes of nationalism, primitivism, and Indianism—all inspired by the aesthetics of European Romanticism—to glorify the exuberance of the tropical land and the mythical life of the. Therefore, culture (especially literature) and politics converged to formulate the ideology of the Brazilian national state. While romanticism did produce works of pure subjectivism, the patriotic image of homeland predominated. Brazilian Romanticism (183070) began with the publication of Domingos José gonçalves de magalhães's Suspiros poéticos e saudades (1836; poetic Sighs and Nostalgias a volume of intimate and lyrical poetry. Magalhães, along with other intellectuals and writers, is also credited with having introduced Romanticism to Brazil via the publication in Paris of Niter ói: revista brasiliense (1836; Niterói: journal Braziliensis recognized as Brazil's official Romantic manifesto.
Both epics glorified the indigenous peoples as noble savages ( noble savage ) while praising the natural beauty of the land. Durão's poem, loosely modeled on the form of the portuguese epic. Os Lusíadas (1572; The lusiads by luís de camões ( Camões, luís de is, with its detail of native life, an example of exuberant nativism and a precursor to romantic Indianism. The lyrical poetry of this school, notable for pastoral verses, is to be found in the work of Cláudio manuel da costa ( Obras poéticas 1768; poetic Works) and in Tomás Antônio gonzaga ( Gonzaga, tomás Antônio s three-part Mar ília de dirceu (1792, 1799. As pre-romantics, these poets led the way toward a burgeoning national literature. The 19th century Independence during the tenure of the portuguese court in rio de janeiro (180822 the colony 's ideas of self-governance emerged. When it gained its independence in 1822, the newly declared Brazilian Empire had to forge a national culture, and Romanticism became its vehicle.
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The baroque can also be found in the prose of Father Antônio vieira (. Vieira, antónio a powerful and learned Portuguese jesuit who spent many years as a missionary among the Indians in the Amazon and the northeast. Recognized for his 15 volumes of sermons published between 16, vieira addressed religious and sociopolitical issues in a florid rhetorical style that became well known throughout Latin America. In the mid-18th century, literature began to manifest a strong interest in neoclassical forms of Arcadianism ( see arcádia) as practiced by the minas school of poets, who wrote epic and neoclassical verse that combined personal lyrics with descriptions of nature and Classical ideals. Greatly influenced by the. Enlightenment, these poets formed a conspiracy in 1789 with the aim of promoting political independence.
The abortive inconfidência mineira nevertheless made national heroes of these literary figures, who later were celebrated by several Romantic poets. Two epic poets of the 18th century were basílio da gama (. Gama, basílio da ) statement and José de writings santa rita durão (. Durão, josé de santa rita ). As part of the minas school, they wrote, respectively, o uraguai (1769; Uruguay) and, caramuru: poema épico do descobrimento da bahia (1781; Caramuru: Epic poem of the discovery of Bahia).
Father José de Anchieta (. Anchieta, josé de recognized as the father of Brazilian literature, spent most of his life in Brazil catechizing the Indians. Inspired by medieval religious theatre, his dramas represent the best of Brazil's notable jesuit theatre of the 16th century. Anchieta also wrote the first grammar of the tupí language (1595). Scholars dispute the actual beginning of Brazilian literature.
Afrânio coutinho, for instance, interprets Brazilian literature as the expression of the nativist experiences in the new World. But coutinho also underscores that Brazilian literature was born under the influence of the baroque through the writings of Jesuits such as Anchieta. In this same vein, Antônio cândido, in his. Formação da literatura brasileira (1969; Formation of Brazilian Literature emphasizes the european genesis of Brazilian letters and how the civilization was shaped by the colonial experience. Although Brazilian literature is considered to have its official origins in the 19th century, during the decade following Brazil's independence (1822 most scholars, like, cândido, recognize local literature as emerging in the 18th century. Within this literature is embedded a distinctly Brazilian cultural context, even though these works make use of European aesthetics and Classical forms. With the baroque and its variant Rococo in Brazil flourishing up to the mid-18th century, this metaphorical style of rhetoric with its play on words can be found in the satirical poetry of the irreverent 17th-century poet Gregório de matos guerra (. Matos guerra, gregório de ). Nicknamed Boca do Inferno (Hell's mouth owing to his vicious barbs concerning the social injustices in the colony, matos wrote in a colloquial tone that already betrayed impulses of a brazilian style.
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Prosopopéia (1601; Personification by bento teixeira, and. Diálogos das grandezas do Brasil (1618; dialogues of the Great Things of Brazil by Ambrósio fernandes Brandão, and continuously in texts written throughout the colonial period. Born in Portugal, teixeira—like all crypto-jews obliged to practice reviews their Judaism clandestinely—fled to Brazil from the Inquisition, but he eventually fell victim to the holy Office, dying in an Inquisition jail in Lisbon. Published in Portugal, his. Prosopopéia is an epic poem in Classical form that pays homage to a governor in Brazil's Northeast. Despite the Christian spirit at its surface, the poem can be read as crypto-jewish, hinting at the tribulations of Jews in colonial Brazil. Other cultural and literary activities during early colonization were sparked by the european Baroque via missionary jesuits.
Introduction the body of written works produced in the portuguese language in Brazil. Colonial period, brazil was claimed for Portugal in 1500 and was named for the land's first export product, pau-brasil ( brazilwood trade in which was initiated in 1502 by a consortium of New Christians (converted Jews) led by fernão de noronha. With printing presses scarce during most of the colonial period, manuscripts, when possible, were published primarily in the mother country portugal—unlike in Spanish America, where printing presses had been established since the early days of colonization. Publications of conquest, travel, and colonization were therefore not encouraged within colonial Brazil. This scenario explains in part why the letter of discovery written to essay king. Manuel, i of Portugal by pero vaz de caminha—the scribe to the explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral (. Cabral, pedro Álvares who is credited with having been the first European to sight Brazil—was not published until 1817, even though its existence had been known since 1773. The letter not only narrates the portuguese encounter with native tribes and the discovery of natural resources but also reveals the roots of nativism, an impressionistic glorification of Brazil's fauna and flora. Nativism was also evident in 16th- and 17th-century texts such.
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