The determination of whether or not same-gender relations is appropriate for a layperson is not considered a religious matter by many buddhists. 91 According to the pāli canon āgama (the early buddhist scriptures there is not any saying that same or opposite gender relations have anything to do with sexual misconduct, 92 93 and some Theravada monks express that same-gender relations do not violate the rule. 94 Some later traditions gradually began to add new restrictions on sexual misconduct, like non-vagina sex, though its situations seem involving coerced sex. This non-vagina sex as sexual misconduct view is not based on what Buddha's said, but from some later Abhidharma texts. 98 99 Buddhism is often characterized as distrustful of sensual enjoyment and sexuality in general. 100 Traditionally, sexual conduct are seen as obstacles to spiritual progress in most schools of Buddhism; as such monks are expected to refrain from all sexual activity, and the vinaya (the first book of the Tripitaka ) specifically prohibits sexual intercourse, then further explain that.
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Hindu groups are historically not unified regarding the issue of homosexuality, each one having a distinct doctrinal view. The Indian Kama sutra, written around 150 bc, 84 contains passages describing eunuchs or "third-sex" males performing oral sex on men. 85 86 Similarly, some medieval Hindu temples and artifacts openly depict both male homosexuality and lesbianism within their carvings, such as the temple walls at writing Khajuraho. Some infer from these images that at least part of the hindu society and religion were previously more open to variations in human sexuality than they are at present. Khajoraho scene of three women and one man. In some hindu sects (specifically among the hijras many divinities are androgynous. There are hindu deities who are intersex (both male and female who manifest in all three genders; who switch from male to female or from female to male; male deities with female moods and female deities with male moods; deities born from two males. Several Hindu priests have performed same-sex marriages, arguing that love is the result of attachments from previous births and that marriage, as a union of spirit, is transcendental to gender. 87 favourite 88 It is often regarded that Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality. 89 Buddhism edit main article: Buddhism and sexual orientation The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics are the five precepts and the eightfold Path, one should neither be attached to nor crave sensual pleasure. The third of the five precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct." 90 However, "sexual misconduct" is a broad term, and is subjected to interpretation relative to the social norms of the followers.
In 2005, an authority figure of sikhism condemned same-sex marriage and the practice of homosexuality. However, many people in sikhism do not oppose gay marriage. 78 Ancient Hindu texts such as the vedas often refer to people of a third gender known as hijra, who are neither female nor male. Some see this third gender as an ancient parallel to modern western lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex identities. Hinduism edit main articles: Homosexuality and Hinduism and lgbt themes in Hindu mythology hinduism has taken various positions, ranging summary from positive to neutral or antagonistic. Referring to the nature of Samsara, the rigveda, one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism says 'vikruti evam Prakriti' (perversity/diversity is what nature is all about, or, what seems unnatural is also natural ). 79 A " third gender " has been acknowledged within Hinduism since vedic times. Several Hindu texts, such as Manu Smriti 80 and Sushruta samhita, assert that some people are born with either mixed male and female natures, or sexually neuter, as a matter of natural biology. Several Hindu religious laws contain injunctions against homosexual activity, while some hindu theories do not condemn lesbian relations and some third-gendered individuals were highly regarded.
Rather a tazeer punishment must be imposed, because it is a sin. 76 Although punishment for lesbianism is rarely mentioned in the histories, al-Tabari records an example of the casual execution of a pair of lesbian slavegirls in the harem of al-Hadi, in a collection of highly critical anecdotes pertaining to that Caliph 's actions as ruler. 77 Bahá'í faith edit main article: Homosexuality and the bahá'í faith Bahá'í law limits permissible sexual relations to those between a man and a woman in marriage. Believers are expected to abstain from sex outside matrimony. Citation needed bahá'ís do not, however, attempt to impose their moral standards on those who have not accepted the revelation of Baháulláh. Citation needed While requiring uprightness in all matters of morality, whether sexual or otherwise, the baháí teachings resume also take account of human frailty and call for tolerance and understanding in regard to human failings. In this context, to regard homosexuals with prejudice would be contrary to the spirit of the baháí teachings. Citation needed Indian religions edit Among the religions that originated in India, including Hinduism, buddhism, jainism and sikhism, teachings regarding homosexuality are less clear than among the Abrahamic traditions, and religious authorities voice diverse opinions.
70 71 The lds church strongly opposes same-sex marriage and teaches that marriage is only to be between a man and a woman, and that this is essential to god's eternal plan. 72 For more information on this subject, see the lds church's website "love one Another: a discussion on Same-sex Attraction". 73 This site strives to address, through interviews and videos from Church leaders and members, the issue of same-sex attraction as it relates to individuals and affected family members. Islam edit main article: Homosexuality and Islam "do you approach males among the worlds And leave what your Lord has created for you as mates? But you are a people transgressing." — quran, surah 26 (165-166 trans. Sahih International All major Islamic schools disapprove of homosexuality, 74 Islam views same-sex desires as an unnatural temptation; and sexual relations are seen as a transgression of the natural role and aim of sexual activity. 75 Islamic teachings (in the hadith tradition) presume same-sex attraction, extol abstention and (in the qur'an ) condemn consummation. The discourse on homosexuality in Islam is primarily concerned with activities between men. There are, however, a few hadith mentioning homosexual behavior in women; The fuqaha are agreed that "there is no hadd punishment for lesbianism, because it is not zina.
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Protestant conservatives also see homosexual relationships as an impediment to heterosexual relationships. They interpret some biblical passages to be commandments to be heterosexually married. 61 Catholics, on the other hand, have accommodated unmarried people as priests, monks, nuns and single lay people for over a thousand years. A number of self-described gay and ' ex-gay ' christians have reported satisfaction in mixed-orientation marriages. Catholic Church edit main article: Homosexuality and Roman Catholicism The catholic Church teaches that those who are attracted to persons of the same sex are called to practice chastity, 65 just like everyone else.
66 The catholic Church does not regard homosexual activity as an expression of the marital sacrament, which it teaches is only possible within a lifelong commitment of a marriage between a man and a woman. According to the Church's mobile sexual ethics, homosexual activity falls short in the complementarity (male and female organs complement each other) and fecundity (openness to new life) of the sexual act. Mormonism edit main article: Homosexuality and Mormonism An lgbt pride flag in front of the iconic Mormon temple. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints teaches that no one should arouse sexual feelings outside of marriage, including those towards members of the same sex. 67 The lds church recognizes that feelings of same-sex attraction may not change or be overcome in this earth life, and expect all un-married members, gay or straight, to abstain from any and all sexual relations outside of heterosexual marriage. 68 The lds church maintains that feelings and inclinations toward the same sex (i.e., homosexual feelings or "temptations are not inherently sinful, but engaging in homosexual behavior is in conflict with the "doctrinal principle, based on sacred scripture that marriage between a man and.
The Episcopal Church's recent actions vis-a-vis homosexuality have brought about increased ethical debate and tension within the Church of England and worldwide Anglican churches. In the United States and many other nations, the religious people are becoming more affirming of same-sex relationships. Even those in denominations with official stances are liberalizing, though not as quickly as those in more affirming religious groups. 39 Passages from the mosaic covenant and its broader Old Testament context have been interpreted to mean that anyone engaging in homosexual practices should be punished with death ( leviticus 20:13 ;. Genesis 19:4-25 ; Judges 19:22-20:48 ; 2 Peter 2:6-10 ; Jude 7 ). Aids has also been portrayed by some fundamentalist sects such as Fred Phelps and Jerry falwell as a punishment by god against homosexuals.
40 In the 20th century, theologians like karl Barth, jürgen Moltmann, hans Küng, john Robinson, bishop david Jenkins, don Cupitt, bishop Jack Spong challenged traditional theological positions and understandings of the bible; following these developments some have suggested that passages have been mistranslated, are taken. As such, it is argued that sexual desires and actions that contradict God's design are deemed sinful and are condemned by god (e.g. "and with a male you singular masculine shall not lie sexually as with a female, that is an abomination leviticus 18:22 ;. Since love does not rejoice in unrighteousness or iniquity (cf. 1 Corinthians 13:6 and since homosexual desires and actions are believed to remain contrary to god's design and condemned by god as sinful / iniquity (e.g. In general, romans 1:26-27 ; passively, 1 Corinthians 6:9 ; 56 actively, including but not limited to pederasty, 1 Corinthians 6:9 ; 1 Timothy 1:9-11 ; 57 58 considered sexually immoral, galatians 5:19-21 ; Colossians 3:57 ; Ephesians 5:3 59 adherents of conservative denominations believe. Jeremiah 23:140 ; Romans 12:9 ). Where the catholic view is founded on a natural law argument informed by scripture and proposed by Thomas Aquinas, 60 the traditional conservative protestant view is based on an interpretation of scripture alone.
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17 18 These denominations include the roman Catholic Church, 19 the eastern Orthodox church, 20 the Oriental Orthodox churches, 21 Confessional Lutheran denominations such as the lutheran ChurchMissouri synod 22 23 and the wisconsin evangelical Lutheran Synod, 24 25 the United Methodist Church, and some. Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God, 35 as well as Restorationist churches, like jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons, also take the position that homosexual sexual activity is sinful. 36 37 Religious protest of homosexuality in San Francisco liberal Christians are reviews supportive of homosexuals. Some Christian denominations do not view monogamous same sex relationships as bad or evil. These include the United Church of Canada, the United Church of Christ, 38 the Episcopal Church, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the churches of the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht, the evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the Church of Sweden. In particular, word the metropolitan Community Church, a denomination of 40,000 members, was founded specifically to serve the Christian lgbt community, and is devoted to being open and affirming to lgbt people. The United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriage, and some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions. Within the Anglican communion there are openly gay clergy; for example, gene robinson and Mary Glasspool are openly homosexual bishops in the us episcopal Church and eva brunne in Lutheran Church of Sweden.
(like many similar commandments, the stated punishment for willful violation is the death penalty, although in practice rabbinic Judaism no longer believes it has the authority to implement death penalties.) Orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. In recent years, there has been approaches claiming only the sexual anal act is forbidden and considered abomination by the torah, while the sexual orientation and even other sexual activities are not considered a sin. Conservative judaism has engaged in an in-depth study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa (papers with legal arguments) for communal consideration. The official position of the movement is to welcome homosexual Jews into their synagogues, and also campaign against any discrimination in civil law and public society, but also to uphold a ban on anal sex as a religious requirement. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the same basis as heterosexuality. Progressive jewish authorities believe either that traditional laws against homosexuality are no longer binding or essay that they are subject to changes that reflect a new understanding of human sexuality. Some of these authorities rely on modern biblical scholarship suggesting that the prohibition in the torah was intended to ban coercive or ritualized homosexual sex, such as those practices ascribed to Egyptian and Canaanite fertility cults and temple prostitution. Citation needed 16 Christianity edit main article: Christianity and homosexuality Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, ranging from outright condemnation to complete acceptance. Most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual acts are sinful.
of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed. Contents views of specific religious groups edit Abrahamic religions edit The Abrahamic religions of Judaism, christianity and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy, believing and teaching that such behavior is sinful. 13 14 Today some denominations within these religions are accepting of homosexuality and inclusive of homosexual people, such as Reform Judaism, the United Church of Christ and the metropolitan Community Church. Some Presbyterian and Anglican churches welcome members regardless of same-sex sexual practices, with some provinces allowing for the ordination and inclusion of gay and lesbian clerics, and affirmation of same-sex unions. Reform Judaism incorporates lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex marriage liturgies, while reconstructionist Judaism and Conservative judaism in the us allows for lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex unions. 15 Judaism edit main article: Homosexuality and Judaism The torah (first five books of the hebrew Bible ) is the primary source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that: "A man shall not lie with another man as he would with a woman, it is a toeba abomination ( leviticus 18:22).
5, many argue that it is homosexual actions which are sinful, rather than biography same-sex attraction itself. To this end, some discourage labeling individuals according to sexual orientation. 6, several organizations exist that assert that conversion therapy can help diminish same-sex attraction. However, some adherents of many religions view the two sexual orientations positively, and some religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages and support, lgbt rights, and the amount of those that do are continuously increasing around the world as much of the developed world enacts laws. Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered, same-sex love and sexuality; 7 8 such mythologies and traditions can be found around the world. 9, for example, hinduism does not view homosexuality as a religious sin. 10, in 2009, the hindu council uk released the statement "Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality".
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See also: lgbt and religion topics, the relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominations, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. Present day doctrines of the world's major religions vary vastly generally and by denomination on attitudes toward these sexual orientations. Among those denominations that generally are negative towards these orientations, there are many different types of actions they may take: this can range from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality, to writings execution. Religious fundamentalism has been found to correlate positively with anti-homosexual bias. 1, this is the case with common religiosity too, which typically predicts homophobic attitudes 2 but has also been found to lead to physical antigay hostility, in a lab experiment. 3, religious opposition to gay adoption was found to be explained by collectivistic values (loyalty, authority, purity) and low flexibility in existential issues, and not by high prosocial inclinations for the weak. Attitudes toward homosexuality have been found to be determined not only by personal religious beliefs, but by the interaction of those beliefs with the predominant national religious context—even for people who are less religious or who do not share their local dominant religious context.