The noun love had the form lufu with different case endings. But in the course of time, the personal and case endings were lost. Then there were some changes with vowels. U 61662;A in 17 century (great vowel shift) and as a result of such historical changes we have 1 form for a noun and for a verb. One should guard against thinking that every case of noun and verb (verb and adjective, adjective and noun, etc.) with the same morphemic shape results from conversion. There are numerous pairs of words (e.
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It forms abstract nouns, denote theory, political doctrine, movement in art; ful-adj-formation suffix, productive, of Germanic origin, means some quality (beautiful, hopeful less-adj-formation suffix, productive, of Germanic origin, meaning free of something (hopeless). Prefixes change the meaning of the root of the word. We analyze them from the point and of view of their productivity, origin, meaning (re-productive, of Romanic origin, meaning-again; pre- productive, of Romanic origin, means-before (prewar post- productive, of Romanic origin, means-after (postwar). Conversion, conversion is such a phenomena in modern English, when two or more words belong to different part of speech and train posses the same form (to smile-a smile, fall-to fall). Conversion may be the result of shading of English endings. This shedding has made it possible to use a great many words in functions of different part of speech without any change of the form. The historical changes may be briefly outlined as follows:. A verb and a noun of the same root were distinguished by their endings. For ex: the verb to love had a form (o.e.) lufian. This verb had personal conjunctions.
Very often grammatical suffixes fulfill the shredder function of lexical suffixes. Such phenomenon is called lexicolization. Suffixes are productive and unproductive. Productive form new word: ful, less, painter, actor. Unproductive dont do it: hood, childhood. Suffixes: er-a noun-forming suffix, productive, of Germanic origin, denotes persons (painter ism-a noun-forming suffix, productive. It has become almost international.
Forming and verb forming affixes; 3) according to semantic functions. They may denote remote persons, quality, negation. E) now shredder it is suffix. Suffixes may change the part of speech: critic (al). All suffixes are divided into lexical and grammatical. Lexical suffixes build new word. For ex: read-readable, happy-happiness, act-actor. Grammatical suffixes change the grammatical form of a word. For ex: finish-finished, say-says, rose-roses.
Idioms taken from history reflect customs of England. A king of England presented a white elephant to that member of the court, whom he wanted to ruin. This expression came from middle ages. The knights had the custom to wear the tokens of their ladies on their sleeves. This expression also came from middle ages, when the distinguished knight rode on high horses. Affixation, affixation is the formation of new words by means of suffixes and prefixes. Affixes may be grouped 1) according to their linguistic origin. We distinguish affixes of Germanic origin (full, less of Romanic origin (ion of Greek origin (ise, izm 2) according to the parts of speech. We distinguish noun forming, adj.
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Unities, the meaning of the words whole expression differs from the meaning of the words of the group, because it has the figurative meaning. Unities, we may have a homonym. Here we cannot substitute the elements and we cannot change them. Thought it is very difficult, but we can get the meaning of the whole expression. Phusions and idioms present the most stable and very complicated relations between the elements. Phusions form a semantic unit and usually they are equivalents to a word. For ex: to pull ones leg to mock.invention
The meaning of an idiom doesnt grow out of the meanings of the words it consists. Not a single element may be replaced. Idioms cant be separated from the point of the syntax. Idioms have no homonyms. Its necessary to look up the meaning of idioms in the dictionary, otherwise it is impossible to understand them or we must know the history of phusions. Idioms may be taken from different spheres of human activity history, literature, mythology.
Lexicology is that branch of linguistics which is concerned with the study of words. Lexicology studies meaning and making words, their ways and manners, where they come from, their appearance in the language. As a branch of linguistics, lexicology has four subbranches:. Semantics or semasiology;. Phraseology subbranch, which studies sat expressions and stock phrases. Phraseology is a new linguistics science.
Its basic principles were given by academician Vinogradov in the russian language, which may be also taken in English language. Phraseological expressions may be divided into:. Combination (to make a report, to deliver a speech, to take a look) is rather free and not strictly, stable. We may change it a little bit. It does not present a semantic unit. Elements of such expressions are, to a certain degree, independent. We may substitute one part. But these expressions are limited in their combinative power. Unities (to play the first fiddle, to take the bull by his horns, to skate on thin ice to risk.
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Shirt is a native word, skirt is a scandinavian borrowings. Their shredder phonetic shape is different, and yet there is a certain resemblance, which reflects their common origin. Their meanings are also different but easily associated: they both denote articles of clothing. Etymological triplets (groups of three words of common root) hospital (Lat) hostel (Norm. This term is equivalent to borrowing. They are not taken into the vocabulary database of another language more or less in the same phonetic shape in which they have been functioning in their own language, but undergo the process of translation. It is obvious that it is only compound words, which can be subjected to such an operation, each stem being translated separately. Principals of classification of phraseological units.
Assimilation the process of adaptation phonetic, gram. And semantic features of language. It is landlady often the case that a word is borrowed by several languages and not just by one. Such words usually convey concepts, which are significant in the field of communication. Many of them are of Latin and Greek origin. Most names of sciences are international,. Philosophy, chemistry, biology; sports terms: football, baseball, tennis; foodstuffs and fruits imported from exotic countries: coffee, chocolate, banana, grapefruit; clothing: pullover, shorts. Etymological doublets are pairs of words, which have one and the same original form, but which have acquired different forms and even different meanings during the course of linguistic development. Ex: the words shirt and skirt etymologically descend from the same root.
trade relations, such as: rubble, kopeck, sterlet, vodka, and words relating to nature: taiga, tundra, steppe. After the October revolution many new words appeared in Russia, connected with the new political system, new culture, and many of them were borrowed into English: collectivization, udarnik, komsomol and also translation loans: five-year plan, collective farm. One more group of Russian borrowings is connected with perestroika, suck as: glasnost, nomenclature, and apparatchik. Native words are divided into 3 basic groups: 1) the words which have cognates (words of the same etymological root, of common origin) in many Indo-european languages. For ex: family relations: father (Vater mother, daughter, son; parts of human body: foot, heart, nose; wolf, cow, cat; numerous verbs: stand, sit; the numerals from 1 to 100; heavenly bodies: sun, moon, star. 2) the words, which have cognates with words of the language of the germanic group. Some of the main groups of Germanic words are the same as in the i-e group/ For ex: parts of human body: head, hand, arm, finger; animals: bear, fox; natural phenomena: rain, frost; human dwellings and furniture: house, bench; adj: green, blue, old, good, small. 3) the English element proper. Ex.: bird, boy, girl, woman, lord, always.
During 3 centuries after the norman Conquest French was the language of the court, of the nobility. There are following semantic groups of French borrowings: 1) words relating to government (administer, empire, state 2) military affairs (army, war, battle 3) jurisprudence (advocate, petition, sentence 4) fashion (luxury, coat, collar 5)jewelry (topaz, pearl 6) food and cooking (lunch, cuisine, menu 7)literature and music. Italian: cultural and trade relations between England and Italy in the epoch of renaissance brought in many Italian words: 1) musical terms: concert, solo, opera, piano, trio; 2) political terms: manifesto; 3) geological terms: volcano, lava. Among the 20th century Italian borrowings, we can mention: incognito, fiasco, and graffiti. Spanish: a large number of such words was penetrated in English vocabulary in 1588 when Phillip database 2 sent a fleet of armed ships against England (armada, ambuscade trade terms: cargo, embargo; names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, guitar; names of vegetables and fruits. Germanic borrowings: Scandinavian: by the end of the Old English period English underwent a strong influence of Scandinavian due to the Scandinavian conquest of the British Isles. As a result of this conquest there are about 700 borrowings from Scandinavian into English (pronouns: they, them, their; verbs: to call, to want, to die; adj: flat, ill, happy; noun: cake, egg, knife, window. Dutch: Holland and England have had constant interrelations for many centuries and more then 2000 Dutch words were borrowed into English.
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Etimology branch of lexicology, which deals with the different possesses of assimilation or adaptation of the English words The English vocabulary is very rich. From the point of view of etymology, english vocabulary can be divided into 2 parts: 70 of borrowings in English language, 30 of native words. Borrowings usually take place under legs 2 circumstances: 1) when people have a direct contact with another people; 2) when there is a cultural need to borrow a word from another languages. Latin borrowings: they are divided into 3 periods: 1) 5 century, words are connected with trade (pound, inch, kitchen, wall, port 2) the time of Christianity, words are connected with religion (Latin words: alter, cross, dean; Greek words: church, angel, devil, anthem 3) time. French: the largest group of borrowings is French borrowings. Most of them came into English during the norman Conquest. Normans belong to the race of scand. Origin but during their residence in Normandy they had given up the native language and adopted the French dialect.