Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero.
Art in Our, life
We want the english maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot potter be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables.
However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation,. Fremlin has so wittily shown (4). The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is still unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty business of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as i know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work-and much persuasion.
For man, maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day maintenance calories. Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by "work calories" which he takes. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal book is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: we must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art. I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made revelation the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption.
Specifically, can Bentham's goal of "the greatest good for the greatest number" be realized? No-for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von neumann and Morgenstern (3 but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to d'alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts. To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work.
Importance of, art in Our, life, free
How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who essay anguish over the simple population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem-technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. What Shall we maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow "geometrically or, as we would now say, exponentially.
In a finite world this means that the per capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite; or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the. "Space" is no escape (2). A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind?
They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, "It is our considered professional judgment." Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called "no technical solution problems and, more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, "How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe?" It is well known that I cannot, if i assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. Put another way, there is no "technical solution" to the problem.
I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word "win." I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can drug him; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I "win" involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game-refuse to play. This is what most adults.). The class of "No technical solution problems" has members. My thesis is that the "population problem as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.
Living, essay, example for Free
If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.". I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited business this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences.
They may contain macros which could have viruses. Our advice is that you should not open with macros if your word processor asks you. If you download an essay with virus on please notify us so we can remove. The Tragedy of the commons by garrett Hardin, 1968, published in, science, december 13, 1968. For copyright permission, click here. The author is professor of biology, university of California, santa barbara. This article about is based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the pacific division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, logan, At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, wiesner and. Confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.
Still Can't Find an Essay or Paper On your Topic? Try your search Below: What Topic Is your Term Paper or Essay on? S, enter your topic here: we have over 80,000 Essays and Papers ready to download now! Important: Most essays are saved.
And they are all free! Download as many as you would like. Although 1,000 essays might sound much it really isn't near complete. If you can't find what you need here, revelation you can order it from our long time sponsor The paper Store. Click here to learn more. If you like to submit your essay to the list below. If your browser doesn't support forms, you can also send your essay with your full name, e-mail and a short description of essay. We know the list might seem a little long.
Cross-Cultural English: The role of art in our life (composition)
The goal of Sudoku is to fill in a 99 grid with digits so that each column, row, and 33 section contain the numbers between 1. At the beginning of the game, the 99 grid will have some of the squares filled. Your job is to use logic to fill in the missing digits and complete the grid. Dont forget, a move is incorrect if: Any row contains more than one of the same number from 1. Any column contains more than one of the same number from 1. Any 33 grid contains more than one of the same number from 1. We have lots of essays write in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions. We currently have more than 1,000 essays, mostly in English. Below is the alphabetized list.