Old writing table

old writing table

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Syllabics users do not always consistently mark vowel length, w,. A text with these marked is called a "pointed" text; one without such marks is said to be "unpointed". Syllabaries and syllabics edit The word syllabary has two meanings: a writing system with a separate character for each syllable, but also a table of syllables, including any script arranged in a syllabic chart. Evans' latin Ojibwe alphabet, for example, was presented as a syllabary. Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, the script itself, is thus distinct from a syllabary (syllabic chart) that displays them. History edit Cree syllabics were co-created in a process that culminated in 1840. Cree community member Mistanaskowew (Badger Calling - from mistanask 'badger dreamed the symbols during a near-death experience 9 and English missionary james evans seems to have formalized them for two languages, Swampy Cree and Ojibwe.

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The Cree languages the script was initially designed for had no such clusters. In Inuktitut, something similar is used not to indicate sequences, but to represent additional consonants, rather as the digraphs ch, sh, th were used to extend the latin letters c, s, t to represent additional consonants in English. In Inuktitut, a report raised na-ga is placed before the g- series, to form an assignment ng- ŋ series, and a raised ra (uvular /ʁ is placed before syllables of the k- series, to form a uvular q- series. Although the forms of these series have two parts, each is encoded into the Unicode standard as a single character. Diacritics edit Other marks placed above or beside the syllable are called "diacritics". These include the dot placed above a syllable to mark a long vowel, as in mî, and the dot placed at mid height after the syllable (in western Cree dialects) or before the syllable (in eastern Cree dialects) to indicate a medial w,. These are all encoded as single characters in Unicode. Diacritics used by other languages include a circle above, two dots before, and a variety of other marks. Such diacritics may or may not be separately encoded into Unicode. There is no systematic way to distinguish elements that are parts of syllables from diacritics, or diacritics from finals, and academic discussions of syllabics are often inconsistent in their terminology. Points and pointing edit The diacritic mark used to indicate vowel length is often referred to as a "point".

They are usually placed after a syllable to indicate a final consonant, as the -hk in yihk above. However, the Cree consonant h, which only has a final form, begins a small number of function words such as hāw. In such cases the "final" represents an initial consonant and therefore precedes the syllable. The use of diacritics to write consonants is unusual in abugidas. However, it also occurs (independently) in the lepcha script. Finals are commonly employed in the extension of syllabics to languages it was not initially designed for. In some of the Athabaskan alphabets, finals have been extended to appear at mid height after a syllable, lowered after a syllable, and at mid height before a syllable. For example, chipewyan and Slavey use the final in the latter real position to indicate the initial consonant. In Naskapi, a small raised letter based on sa is used for consonant clusters that begin with /s spwa, stwa, skwa, and scwa.

old writing table

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In Plains Cree, tānisi "hello" or "how are you?" is written as if it had three syllables. Because the first syllable has the stress and the syllable that follows has a short /i the vowel is dropped. As a result, the word is pronounced "tānsi" with only two syllables. Syllabication is important to determining stress in Algonquian languages, and vice versa, so this ambiguity in syllabics is relatively important in Algonquian languages. Series edit The word "series" is used for either a set of syllables with the same vowel, or a set with the same initial consonant. Thus the n-series is the set of syllables that begin with n, and the o-series is the set of syllables that have o as their vowel regardless of their initial consonant. "Finals or reduced letters edit a series of small raised letters are called "finals".

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old writing table

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Syllabics may also be written without word division, as devanagari once was, or with spaces or dots between words or prefixes. 2 phd Punctuation edit The only first punctuation found in many texts is spacing between words and for a full stop. Punctuation from the latin script, including the period (. may also be used. 2 due to the final c resembling a hyphen, a double hyphen is used as the canadian Aboriginal syllabics hyphen.

Glossary edit some common terms as used in the context of syllabics "Syllables or full-size letters edit The full-sized characters, whether standing for consonant-vowel combinations or vowels alone, are usually called "syllables". They may be phonemic rather than morphophonemic syllables. That is, when one morpheme (word element) ends in a consonant and the next begins with a vowel, the intermediate consonant is written as a syllable with the following vowel. For example, the Plains Cree word pīhc-āyi-hk "indoors" has pīhc as its first morpheme, and āyi as its second, but is written pīh-cā-yihk. In other cases, a "syllable" may in fact represent only a consonant, again due to the underlying structure of the language.

How they relate to front-vowel syllables depends on the graphic form of the consonants. These follow two patterns. Symmetrical, 7 vowel, p-, t-, sp-, are rotated 90 degrees (a quarter turn) counter-clockwise, while those that are asymmetrical top-to-bottom, c-, k-, m-, n-, s-, y-, are rotated 180 degrees (a half turn). The lower front-vowel ( -e ) syllables are derived this way from the low back-vowel ( a ) syllables, and the high front-vowel ( -i ) syllables are derived this way from the higher back-vowel ( -o ) syllables. 2 8 The symmetrical letter forms can be illustrated by arranging them into a diamond: i pi ti a o pa po ta to e pe te And the asymmetrical letter forms can be illustrated by arranging them into a square: ki ke. For example, all scripts except the one for Blackfoot use the triangle for vowel-initial syllables.

By 1841, when evans cast the first movable type for syllabics, he found that he could not satisfactorily maintain the distinction between light and heavy typeface for short and long vowels. He instead filed across the raised lines of the type, leaving gaps in the printed letter for long vowels. This can be seen in early printings. Later still a dot diacritic, originally used for vowel length only in handwriting, was extended to print: Thus today a contrasts with â, and mi contrasts with. Although Cree ê only occurs long, the script made length distinctions for all four vowels. Not all writers then or now indicate length, or do not do so consistently; since there is no contrast, no one today writes ê as a long vowel. 2 pointing edit reflecting the shorthand principles on which it was based, syllabics may be written plain, indicating only the basic consonantvowel outline of speech, or pointed, with diacritics for vowel length and the consonants /w/ and /h/. Full phonemic pointing is rare.

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(The glyph for -hk represents the most common final sequence of the language, being a common grammatical ending in Cree, and was used for common -nk in Ojibwe.) The consonants -l and -r year were marginal, only found in borrowings, baby talk, and the like. These, and -h, could occur before vowels, but were written with the final shape regardless. ( -l and -r are now written the size of full letters when they occur before vowels, as the finals were originally, or in some syllabics scripts have been replaced with full rotating syllabic write forms; -h only occurs before a vowel in joined morphemes and. In the type of this Ojibwe sign, left-pointing a is an equilateral triangle, but upright i is isosceles. The vowels fall into two sets, the back vowels -a and -o, and the front vowels -e and -i. Each set consists of a lower vowel, -a or -e, and a higher vowel, -o or -i. In all cases, back-vowel syllables are related through left-right reflection: that is, they are mirror images of each other.

old writing table

Because the script is presented in syllabic charts and learned as a syllabary, it is often considered to be such. Indeed, computer fonts have separate coding points for each syllable (each orientation of each consonant and the Unicode consortium considers syllabics to be a "featural syllabary" along with such scripts as hangul, where each block represents a syllable, but consonants and vowels are indicated independently. This is unlike a true marketing syllabary, where each combination of consonant and vowel has an independent form that is unrelated to other syllables with the same consonant or vowel. 6 Syllabic and final consonant forms edit The original script, which was designed for Swampy Cree, had ten such letter forms: Eight for syllables based on the consonants p-, t-, c-, k-, m-, n-, s-, y- (pronounced /p, t, ts, k, m, n, s,. All were written with a light line to show the vowel was short and a heavier line to show the vowel was long: ka,. (A hand-written variant, a superscript dot for vowel length, is now used in printing as well.) One consonant, w, had no letter form of its own but was indicated by a diacritic on another syllable; this is because it could combine with any of the. 2 There were distinct letters for the nine consonants -p, -t, -c, -k, -m, -n, -s, -y, and w, when they occurred at the end of a addition, four "final" consonants had no syllabic forms: -h, -l, -r, and the sequence -hk. These were originally written midline, but are now superscripted.

The consonant forms and the vowels so represented vary from language to language, but generally approximate their Cree origins. 2 evans' script, as published in 1841. Long vowels were now indicated by breaking the characters. The length distinction was not needed in the case of e, as Cree has only long. (It can be seen in the 1841 version at right.) The clockwise 90 rotation relates vowels as the later series sh- does, but unlike later Inuktitut consonants.

Eastern Cree, woods Cree, swampy Cree and, plains Cree. They are also used to write. Inuktitut in the eastern Canadian Arctic; there they are co-official with the. Latin script in the territory of, nunavut. They are used regionally for the other large canadian Algonquian book language, ojibwe in, western Canada, as well as for, blackfoot, where they are obsolete. Among the Athabaskan languages further to the west, syllabics have been used at one point or another to write dakelh (Carrier Chipewyan, slavey, tłıchǫ (Dogrib) and Dane-zaa (beaver). Syllabics have occasionally been used in the United States by communities that straddle the border, but are principally a canadian phenomenon. Contents Basic principles edit canadian "syllabic" scripts are not syllabaries, in which every consonantvowel sequence has a separate glyph, 4 but abugidas, 5 in which consonants are modified in order to indicate an associated vowel—in this case through a change in orientation, which is unique.

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"Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics" redirects here. For the Unicode block, see. Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics (Unicode block). Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of night abugidas (writing systems based on consonant-vowel pairs) used to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the, algonquian, inuit, and (formerly athabaskan language families. They are valued for their distinctiveness from the. Latin script of the dominant languages and for the ease with which literacy can be achieved; 2 indeed, by the late 19th century the Cree had achieved what may have been one of the highest rates of literacy in the world. 3, canadian syllabics are currently used to write all of the. Cree languages from, naskapi (spoken in, quebec ) to the, rocky mountains, including.

Old writing table
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