Prevention strategies Because the majority of playground injuries are due to falls from equipment, injury prevention efforts are primarily directed at reducing the likelihood of a child falling and reducing the likelihood of a severe injury if the child does fall. This is done by: reducing the maximum fall height of equipment, primarily by reducing the overall height of anything a child might climb on or into; reducing the likelihood of falling from equipment, through using barriers, discouraging climbing, and making upper surfaces inconvenient or uncomfortable. How effective these strategies are at preventing injuries is debated by experts, because when playgrounds are made from padded materials, children often take more risks. 22 30 Playground injury each year in the United States, emergency departments treat more than 200,000 children ages 14 and younger for playground-related injuries. 31 32 Approximately 156,040 (75.8) of the 1999 injuries occurred on equipment designed for public use; 46,930 (22.8) occurred on equipment designed for home use; and 2,880 (1.4) occurred on homemade playground equipment (primarily rope swings). Percentage of injuries involving public equipment About 46 occurred in schools. About 31 occurred in public parks.
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A national Listing of Trained Playground Safety Inspectors is available for many states. A certified Playground Safety Inspector (cpsi) metamaterials is a career that first was developed by the national Playground Safety Institute (npsi) and is recognized nationally by the national Recreation and Park Association. (Some information sources offer interactive examples 24 of playground equipment that violates cpsc guidelines.) In Australia, standards Australia is responsible for the publication of the playground safety Standards AS/NS4422, as/NZS4486.1 and AS4685 Parts 1. The University of Technology sydney is responsible for the training and accreditation of playground inspectors. 25 The register of Playground Inspectors Australia lists all the individuals who have been certified to inspector playgrounds within Australia. 26 European Standards en 1177 specifies the requirements for surfaces used in playgrounds. For each material type and height of equipment it specifies a minimum depth of material required. 27 en 1176 covers playground equipment standards. 28 29 In the uk, playground inspectors can sit the examinations of the register of Play inspectors International at the three required levels - routine, operational and annual. Annual inspectors are able to undertake the post-installation inspections recommended by en 1176.
Wooden playgrounds act as a more natural environment for the children to play but can cause even more minor injuries. Slivers are the main concern when building with wood material. Wet weather is also a threat to children playing on wooden structures. Most woods are treated and do not wear terribly fast, but with enough rain, wooden playgrounds can become slippery and dangerous for children to. Regulation In the United States, the consumer Product presentation Safety commission and the American National Standards Institute have created a standardized Document and Training System for certification of Playground Safety Inspectors. These regulations are nationwide and provide a basis for safe playground installation and maintenance practices. Astm f1487-07 deals with specific requirements regarding issues such as play ground layout, use zones, and various test criteria for determining play ground safety. Astm f2373 covers public use play equipment for children 624 months old. This information can be applied effectively only by a trained.
21 Playgrounds are also made differently for different age groups. Often schools have a playground that is taller and more advanced for older schoolchildren and a lower playground with less risk of falling for younger children. Safety discussions do not normally include an evaluation of the unintended consequences of injury prevention, shredder such as older children who do not exercise at the playground because the playground is too boring. 22 Safety efforts sometimes paradoxically increase the likelihood and severity of injuries because of how people choose to use playground equipment. For example, older children may choose to climb on the outside of a "safe" but boring play structure, rather than using it the way the designers intended. Similarly, rather than letting young children play on playground slides by themselves, some injury-averse parents seat the children on the adult's lap and go down the slide together. 23 This seems safer at first glance, but if the child's shoe catches on the edge of the slide, this arrangement frequently results in the child's leg being broken. 23 If the child had been permitted to use the slide independently, then this injury would not happen, because when the shoe caught, the child would have stopped estate sliding rather than being propelled down the slide by the adult's weight. 23 Also concerning the safety of playgrounds is the material in which they are built.
19 Safety Playground in Yonkers, new York safety, in the context of playgrounds, is generally understood as the prevention of injuries. Risk aversion and fear of lawsuits on the part of the adults who design playgrounds prioritizes injury prevention above other factors, such as cost or developmental benefit to the users. 20 It is important that children gradually develop the skill of risk assessment, and a completely safe environment does not allow that. Sometimes the safety of playgrounds is disputed in school or among regulators. Over at least the last twenty years, the kinds of equipment to be found in playgrounds has changed, often towards safer equipment built with plastic. For example, an older jungle gym might be constructed entirely from steel bars, while newer ones tend to have a minimal steel framework while providing a web of nylon ropes for children to climb. Playgrounds with equipment that children may fall off often use rubber mulch on the ground to help cushion the impact.
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It can be seen that playgrounds provide an ideal opportunity for children to master physical skills, such as learning to swing, balance and climb. Personal development may be gained through the marketing enhancement of skills, such as playing, communicating and cooperating with other children and adults in the playground. It can also be seen that public and private playgrounds act as a preventative health measure amongst young people because they promote physical activity at a stage in childrens lives when they are active and not yet at risk from opting out of physical activity. Citation needed seesaw with a crowd of children playing Children have devised many playground games and pastimes. But because playgrounds are usually subject to adult supervision and oversight, young children's street culture often struggles to fully thrive there. Research by robin moore 18 concluded shown that playgrounds need to be balanced with marginal areas that (to adults) appear to be derelict or wasteground but to children they are area's that they can claim for themselves, ideally a wooded area or field.
For many children, it is their favorite time of day when they get to be on the playground for free time or recess. It acts as a release for them from the pressures of learning during the day. They know that time on the playground is their own time. Citation needed a type of playground called a playscape can provide children with the necessary feeling of ownership that moore describes above. Playscapes can also provide parents with the assurance of their child's safety and wellbeing, which may not be prevalent in an open field or wooded area. Funding In the uk, several organisations exist that help provide funding for schools and local authorities to construct playgrounds. These include the biffa Award, which provides funding under the Small Grants Scheme; Funding Central, which offers support for voluntary organisations and social enterprises; and the community construction Fund, a flagship programme by norfolk county council.
16 by contrast, a park that offers multiple play areas is used equally by boys and girls. Effects on child development Professionals recognize that the social skills that children develop on the playground often become lifelong skill sets that are carried forward into their adulthood. Independent research concludes that playgrounds are among the most important environments for children outside the home. Most forms of play are essential for healthy development, but free, spontaneous play—the kind that occurs on playgrounds—is the most beneficial type of play. Exciting, engaging and challenging playground equipment is important to keep children happy while still developing their learning abilities. These should be developed in order to suit different groups of children for different stages of learning, such as specialist playground equipment for nursery pre-school children teaching them basic numeracy vocabulary, to building a child's creativity and imagination with role play panels or puzzles.
There is a general consensus that physical activity reduces the risk of psychological problems in children and fosters their self-esteem. Citation needed The American Chief Medical Officers report ( Department of health, 2004 stated that a review of available research suggests that the health benefits of physical activity in children are predominantly seen in the amelioration of risk factors for disease, avoidance of weight gain. Evidence suggests that children who participate in physical activity improve their self-esteem. Citation needed ekeland, heian and Hagan (2005) and Gruber 17 found that exercise programmes had a significant positive effect on children's self-esteem. Commentators argue that the quality of a childs exercise experience can affect their self-esteem. Ajzen tpb (1991) promotes the notion that childrens self-esteem is enhanced through the encouragement of physical mastery and self-development.
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15 Playgrounds in the soviet Union see also: Cold War playground equipment Playgrounds were an integral part of urban culture in the ussr. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were playgrounds in almost every park in many soviet cities. Playground apparatus was reasonably standard all over the country; most of them consisted of metallic bars with relatively few wooden parts, and were manufactured in state-owned factories. Some of the most common constructions were the carousel, sphere, seesaw, rocket, bridge, etc. Design Playground design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience. Separate play areas might be offered to accommodate margaret very young children. Single, large, open parks tend to not to be used by older schoolgirls or less aggressive children, because there is little opportunity for them to escape more aggressive children.
9 One of the first playgrounds in the United States was built in San Francisco 's Golden Gate park in 1887. 11 In 1906 the Playground Association of America was founded and a year later Luther Gulick became president. 12 It later became the national Recreation Association and then the national Recreation and Park Association. 13 Urging the need for playgrounds, former President Theodore roosevelt stated in 1907: City streets are unsatisfactory playgrounds for children because of the danger, because most good games are against the law, because they are too hot in summer, and because in crowded sections. Neither do small back yards nor ornamental grass plots meet the needs of any but the very small children. Older children who would play vigorous games must have places especially set aside for them; and, since play is a fundamental need, playgrounds should be provided for every child as much as schools. This means that they must be distributed over the cities training in such a way as to be within walking distance of every boy and girl, as most children can not afford to pay carfare. 14 In post war London the landscape architect and childrens rights campaigner Lady Allen of Hurtwood introduced and popularised the concept of the junk playground - where the equipment was constructed from the recycled junk and rubble left over from the Blitz. She campaigned for facilities for children growing up in the new high-rise developments in Britain's cities and wrote a series of illustrated books on the subject of playgrounds, and at least one book on adventure playgrounds, spaces for free creativity by children, which helped the.
homes. 2 3 4 In the 19th century, developmental psychologists such as Friedrich Fröbel proposed playgrounds as a developmental aid, or to imbue children with a sense of fair play and good manners. In Germany, a few playgrounds were erected in connection to schools, 5 and the first purpose-built public-access playground was opened in a park in Manchester, england in 1859. 6 However, it was only in the early 20th century, as the street lost its role as the default public space and became reserved for use by motor cars, that momentum built to remove children from the new dangers and confine them to segregated areas. In the United States, organisations such as the national Highway protective society highlighted the numbers killed by automobiles, and urged the creation of playgrounds, aiming to free streets for vehicles rather than children's play. 7 8 The outdoor Recreation league provided funds to erect playgrounds on parkland, especially following the 1901 publication of a report on numbers of children being run down by cars in New York city. 9 In tandem with the new concern about the danger of roads, educational theories of play, including by herbert Spencer and John Dewey inspired the emergence of the reformist playground movement, which argued that playgrounds had educational value, improved attention in class, enhanced physical health. 10 Interventionist programs such as by the child savers sought to move children into controlled areas to limit 'delinquency'. 3 meanwhile, at schools and settlement houses for poorer children with limited access to education, health services and daycare, playgrounds were included to support these institutions' goal of keeping children safe and out of trouble.
It is typically outdoors. While a playground is usually designed for children, some target other age groups. Berlin's Preußenpark for example is designed for people aged 70 or higher. Citation needed, a playground might exclude children below a certain age. Modern playgrounds often have recreational equipment such as the seesaw, merry-go-round, swingset, slide, jungle gym, chin-up bars, sandbox, spring rider, trapeze rings, playhouses, and mazes, many of revelation which help children develop physical coordination, strength, and flexibility, as well as providing recreation and enjoyment and supporting. Common in modern playgrounds are play structures that link many different pieces of equipment. Playgrounds often also have facilities for playing informal games of adult sports, such as a baseball diamond, a skating arena, a basketball court, or a tether ball. Public playground equipment refers to equipment intended for use in the play areas of parks, schools, childcare facilities, institutions, multiple family dwellings, restaurants, resorts, and recreational developments, and other areas of public use. In some parts of the United States, the term tot lot may be used.
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This article is about an area for play. For margaret other uses, see. "Adventure Playground" redirects here. For the urban park in Berkeley, california, see. For the album by john Surman, see. A modern-day playground, combination playground structure for small children; slides, climbers (stairs in this case playhouse. A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there.