Book viii edit socrates discusses four unjust constitutions: timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, and tyranny. He argues that a society will decay and pass through each government in succession, eventually becoming a tyranny, the most unjust regime of all. The starting point is an imagined, alternate Aristocracy (ruled by a philosopher-king a just government dominated by the wisdom-loving element. When its social structure breaks down and enters civil war, it is replaced by timocracy. The timocratic government is dominated by the spirited element, with a ruling class of property-owners consisting of warriors or generals ( Ancient Sparta is an example). As the emphasis on honor is compromised by wealth accumulation, it is replaced by Oligarchy. The Oligarchic government is dominated by the desiring element, in which the rich are the ruling class. The gap between rich and poor widens, culminating in a revolt by the underclass majority, establishing a democracy.
SparkNotes : Meno : overall Analysis and Themes
Just as light comes from the sun, so does truth come from goodness. Goodness as the source of truth makes it possible for the mind to know, just as light from the sun makes the eyes able to see. Book vii edit socrates elaborates upon the immediately preceding Analogies of the sun and of the divided Line in the Allegory of the cave, in which he insists that the psyche must be freed from bondage to the visible/sensible world by making the painful journey. He continues in the rest of this book by further elaborating upon the curriculum which a would-be philosopher-king must study. This is the origin of the quadrivium : arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Next, they songs elaborate on the education of the philosopher king. Until age 18, would-be guardians should be engaged in basic intellectual study and physical training, followed by two years of military training. However, a correction is then holder introduced where the study of gymnastics (martial arts) and warfare - 3 plus 2 years, respectively - are supplanted by philosophy for 5 years instead. Next, they receive ten years of mathematics until age 30, and then five years of dialectic training. Guardians then spend the next 15 years as leaders, trying to "lead people from the cave". (This refers to "the Allegory of the cave upon reaching 50, they are fully aware of the form of good, and totally mature and ready to lead.
Adeimantus and Polemarchus interrupt, asking Socrates instead first to explain how the sharing of wives and children in the guardian class is to be defined and legislated, a theme first touched about on in book iii. Socrates is overwhelmed at their request, categorizing it as three "waves" of attack against which his reasoning must stand firm. These three waves challenge socrates' claims that both male and female guardians ought to receive the same education human reproduction ought to be regulated by the state and all offspring should be ignorant of their actual biological parents such a city and its corresponding philosopher-king. Book vi edit socrates' argument is that in the ideal city, a true philosopher with understanding of forms will facilitate the harmonious co-operation of all the citizens of the city. This philosopher-king must be intelligent, reliable, and willing to lead a simple life. However, these qualities are rarely manifested on their own, and so they must be encouraged through education and the study of good. Just as visible objects must be illuminated in order to be seen, so must also be true of objects of knowledge if light is cast on them.
Finally, socrates defines justice. Cephalus defined justice as being honest and paying what is owed; Polemarchus as legal obligations and helping friends and harming foes. Both emphasize giving what is owed as appropriate. For Plato and Socrates, justice is fulfilling one's appropriate role, and consequently giving to the city what is owed. Socrates creates an analogy between the just city and the just man—both are defined by their different parts each performing its specific function. They thus proceed to search for the four cardinal excellences (virtues) of wisdom, courage, temperance and justice. They find wisdom among the guardian rulers, courage among the guardian warriors (or auxiliaries temperance among all classes of the city in arguing who should rule and who ought to be ruled, and finally justice as the state in which each part of the whole. Some of what has been discussed about the state is then applied to the soul, which was the aim of the digression into discussing the state in the first place. Book v edit socrates, having to his satisfaction defined the just constitution of both city and psyche, moves to elaborate upon the four unjust constitutions of these.
SparkNotes : Meno : Sections 70
Book iii edit socrates and his companions Adeimantus and Glaucon conclude their discussion concerning education. Socrates breaks the educational system into two. They suggest that guardians should be educated in these four virtues: wisdom, courage, justice and temperance. They also suggest that the second part of the guardians' education should be in gymnastics. With physical training they will be able resume to live without needing frequent medical attention: physical training will help prevent illness and weakness.
In summary, socrates asserts that both male and female guardians be given the same education, that all wives and children be shared, and that ownership of private property ought to be prohibited amongst them. Book iv edit socrates and his companions conclude their discussion concerning the lifestyle of the guardians, thus concluding their initial assessment of the city as a whole. Socrates assumes each person will be happy engaging in the occupation that suits them best. If the city as a whole is happy, then individuals are happy. In the physical education and diet of the guardians, the emphasis is on moderation, neither too much nor too little. Without controlling their education, the city cannot control the future rulers. The absence of laws makes running the city simpler, but it places all the power with the guardians.
Socrates' young companions, Glaucon and Adeimantus, continue the argument of Thrasymachus for the sake of furthering the discussion. Glaucon gives a speech in which he argues first that the origin of justice was in social contracts aimed at preventing one from suffering injustice without having the ability to take revenge, second that all those who practice justice do so unwillingly and out. Glaucon would like socrates to prove that justice is not only desirable, but that it belongs to the highest class of desirable things: those desired both for their own sake and their consequences. After Glaucon's speech, Adeimantus adds that, in this thought experiment, the unjust should not fear any sort of divine judgement in the afterlife, since the very poets who wrote about such judgement also wrote that the gods would grant forgiveness to those humans who made. Adeimantus demonstrates his reason by drawing two detailed portraits, that the unjust man could grow wealthy by injustice, devoting a percentage of this gain to religious sacrifices, thus rendering him innocent in the eyes of the gods. Socrates suggests that they look for justice in a city rather than in an individual man.
After attributing the origin of society to the individual not being self-sufficient and having many needs which he cannot supply himself, they go on to describe the development of the city. Socrates first describes the "healthy state but Glaucon asks him to describe "a city of pigs as he found little difference between the two. He then goes on to describe the luxurious city, which he calls "a fevered state". 8 This requires a guardian class to defend and attack on its account. This begins a discussion concerning the type of education that ought to be given to these guardians in their early years, including the topic of what kind of stories are appropriate. They conclude that stories that ascribe evil to the gods are untrue and should not be taught.
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This culminates in dates the discussion of Kallipolis (Καλίπολις a hypothetical city-state ruled by a philosopher king. They also discuss the theory of forms, the immortality of the soul, and the role of the philosopher and that of poetry in society. 6, the dialogues may have taken place during the peloponnesian War. 7 Contents Structure edit by book edit book i edit While visiting the piraeus with Glaucon, polemarchus asks Socrates to join him for a celebration. Socrates then asks Cephalus, polemarchus, and Thrasymachus their definitions of justice. Cephalus defines justice as giving what is owed. Polemarchus says justice is "the art which gives good to friends and evil to enemies." Thrasymachus proclaims "justice is nothing else than the interest of the stronger." Socrates overturns their definitions and says that it is to your presentation advantage to be just and disadvantage. The first book ends in aporia concerning its essence. Book ii edit socrates believes he has answered Thrasymachus and is done with the discussion of justice.
Rival lovers 132a 139a, theætetus 142a 210d Sophist 216a 268b Euthydemus 271a 307c Protagoras 309a 362a hippias minor 363a 376c Cratylus 383a 440e gorgias 447a 527e ion 530a 542b Volume 2 Philebus 11a 67b Meno 70a 100b Alcibiades 103a 135e 2nd Alcibiades 138a 151c Charmides. Tools : Index of persons and locations - detailed and synoptic chronologies - maps of Ancient Greek world. Site information : About the author. First published on this site september 23, 2001 - Last updated March 8, bernard suzanne (click on name to send your comments via e-mail)"tions from theses pages are make authorized provided they mention the author's name and source of"tion (including date of last update). Copies of these pages must not alter the text and must leave this copyright mention visible in full. The, republic greek : πολιτεία, politeia ; Latin : Res Publica 1 ) is a, socratic dialogue, written by, plato around 380 bc, concerning justice ( δικαιοσύνη the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man. It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and historically. 3 4, in the book's dialogue, socrates discusses the meaning of justice and whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man with various Athenians and foreigners. 5, they consider the natures of existing regimes and then propose a series of different, hypothetical cities in comparison.
in using this"tion system, most editions of Plato's works, in Greek or in translations, provide the Stephanus references, either in margins or within the text itself, sometimes in running titles. Obviously, with translations, the changes of sections are only approximate, due to the fact that a translation never faithfully follows the order of the words in the original language. In some instances, as when refering to a single word or a short sequence of words, a line number is added after the section letter (this is obviously the case with a "word index such as leonard Brandwood's ". Word Index to Plato a book listing in alphabetical order all Greek words appearing in Plato's works with Stephanus references for all occurrences). Unfortunately, accurate line numbering for such references is much harder to get and is almost never reproduced in modern editions of the Greek text (obviously, this line numbering could only be approximate in translations, even more so than section changes). The reference edition used for line numbering is usually the Oxford Classical Texts (OCT) edition of Plato's works in five volumes. The distribution of dialogues across the three volumes of the Stephanus edition is as provided in the table below, with start and end reference of each dialogue. Volume 1, euthyphro 2a 16a, apology 17a 42a, crito 43a 54e, phædo 57a 118a, theages 121a 131a.
Republic and, laws the page number in the Stephanus edition followed by the letter of father's the section including the first word of the"tion. No volume number needs to be provided because no dialogue splits over two volumes, and thus, the dialogue name suffices to make the reference unambiguous. Thus,"tions take the form. Sophist, 247d (the "provisional" definition of being). Republic, v, 473c (the principle of the philosopher-king). quot;tions are usually given with reference to the start and end point of the"d section. If the end point is in the same page as the start point, only the end section letter is added, and the"tion takes the form.
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Plato faq:"ng Plato, people not familiar with Plato may wonder what are those roles weird numbers and letters used in references to his works after the name of the"d dialogue. Here is the answer. The figures and letters used almost universally to" Plato refer to a renaissance edition of his works published in Geneva in 1578 by a famed printer and humanist of the time named Henri Estienne (1528-1598 also known by the latinized version of his name . This complete edition of Plato's works was in three volumes, whose page were continuously numbered from beginning to end of each volume. Each page of this edition is split in two columns, the inner one providing the Greek text and the outer one a latin translation (by jean de serres). In between the two columns are printed letters from A to e dividing the column into five sections ( another page of this site dedicated to this edition includes pictures of some of its pages, thus alowing a more visual understanding of this disposition). Based on this, a"tion of Plato includes the name of the dialogue (plus the book number for.