Arthur Mitchell in preparing an English translation of Creative evolution. In August 1910, james died. It was his intention, had he lived to see the translation finished, to introduce it to the English reading public by a prefatory note of appreciation. In the following year, the translation was completed and still greater interest in Bergson and his work was the result. By coincidence, in that same year (1911 bergson penned a preface of sixteen pages entitled Truth and reality for the French translation of James's book, pragmatism. In it, he expressed sympathetic appreciation of James's work, together with certain important reservations. From 5 to 11 April, bergson attended the fourth International Congress of Philosophy held at Bologna, in Italy, where he gave an address on "Philosophical Intuition".
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James certainly neglected many of the deeper metaphysical aspects of Bergson's thought, which did not harmonize with his own, and are even in direct contradiction. In addition to this, bergson can hardly be considered a pragmatist. For him, "utility far from being a test make of truth, was, in fact, the reverse: a synonym for error. Nevertheless, william James hailed Bergson as an ally. In 1903, he wrote: I have been re-reading Bergson's books, and nothing that I have read for years has so excited and stimulated my thoughts. I am sure that his philosophy has a great future; it breaks through old frameworks and brings things to a solution from which new crystallizations can be reached. 21 The most noteworthy tributes James paid to bergson come in the hibbert Lectures (A Pluralistic Universe which James gave at Manchester College, oxford, shortly after meeting Bergson in London. He remarks on the encouragement he gained from Bergson's thought, and refers to his confidence in being "able to lean on Bergson's authority." (see further James's reservations about Bergson, below.) The influence of Bergson had led James "to renounce the intellectualist essay method and the current. It had induced him, he continued, "to give up logic, squarely and irrevocably" as a method, for he found that "reality, life, experience, concreteness, immediacy, use what word you will, exceeds our logic, overflows, and surrounds it". These remarks, which appeared in James's book a pluralistic Universe in 1909, impelled many English and American readers to investigate bergson's philosophy for themselves, but no English translations of Bergson's major work had yet appeared. James, however, encouraged and assisted.
Some writers, taking merely these dates into consideration and overlooking the fact that James's investigations had been proceeding since 1870 (registered from time to time by various articles which culminated in "The Principles have mistakenly dated Bergson's ideas as earlier than James's. It has been suggested by whom? that Bergson owes the root ideas of his first book to the 1884 article by james, "On Some Omissions of Introspective psychology which he neither refers to nor"s. This article deals with the conception of thought as a stream of consciousness, which intellect distorts by framing into concepts. Bergson replied to this insinuation by denying that he had any knowledge of the article by james when he wrote les données immédiates de la conscience. Citation needed The two thinkers appear to have developed independently until almost the close of the century. They are revelation further apart in their intellectual position than is frequently supposed. Both have succeeded in appealing to audiences far beyond the purely academic sphere, but only in their mutual rejection of "intellectualism" as decisive as their actual agreement. Although James was slightly ahead in the development and enunciation of his ideas, he confessed that he was baffled by many of Bergson's notions.
16 he also"d Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, the successor of Claude bernard at the Chair of Experimental Medicine in the collège de France, etc. Bergson served as a juror with Florence meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, a grant given between 19 to painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers, and musicians. 20 Relationship with James and Pragmatism edit bergson traveled to london in 1908 and met there with William James, the harvard philosopher who was Bergson's senior by seventeen years, and who was instrumental in calling the attention of the Anglo-American public to the work. The two became great friends. James's impression margaret of Bergson is given in his Letters under date of : "So modest and unpretending a man but such a genius intellectually! I barbing have the strongest suspicions that the tendency which he has brought to a focus, will end by prevailing, and that the present epoch will be a sort of turning point in the history of philosophy." As early as 1880, james had contributed an article. Four years later, a couple of articles by him appeared in the journal Mind : "What is an Emotion?" and "On some Omissions of Introspective psychology". Bergson"d the first two of these articles in his 1889 work, time and Free will. In the following years, 189091 appeared the two volumes of James's monumental work, the Principles of Psychology, in which he refers to a pathological phenomenon observed by bergson.
An illness prevented his visiting Germany from attending the Third Congress held at heidelberg. His third major work, creative evolution, the most widely known and most discussed of his books, appeared in 1907. Pierre Imbart de la tour remarked that Creative evolution was a milestone of new direction in thought. Citation needed by 1918, Alcan, the publisher, had issued twenty-one editions, making an average of two editions per annum for ten years. Following the appearance of this book, bergson's popularity increased enormously, not only in academic circles but among the general reading public. At that time, bergson had already made an extensive study of biology including the theory of fecundation (as shown in the first chapter of the Creative evolution which had only recently emerged,. 1885 no small feat for a philosopher specializing in the history of philosophy, in particular Greek and Roman philosophy. 16 he also most certainly had read, apart from Darwin, haeckel, from whom he retained his idea of a unity of life and of the ecological solidarity between all living beings, 16 as well as Hugo de Vries, from whom he"d his mutation theory.
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In 1900 Felix Alcan published a work which had previously appeared in the short revue de paris, entitled laughter ( le rire one of the most important of Bergson's minor productions. This essay on report the meaning of comedy stemmed from a lecture which he had given in his early days in the auvergne. The study of it is essential to an understanding of Bergson's views of life, and its passages dealing with the place of the artistic in life are valuable. The main thesis of the work is that laughter is a corrective evolved to make social life possible for human beings. We laugh at people who fail to adapt to the demands of society if it seems their failure is akin to an inflexible mechanism.
Comic authors have exploited this human tendency to laugh in various ways, and what is common to them is the idea that the comic consists in there being "something mechanical encrusted on the living". 18 19 In 1901 the Académie des sciences morales et politiques elected Bergson as a member, and he became a member of the Institute. In 1903 he contributed to the revue de métaphysique et de morale a very important essay entitled Introduction to metaphysics ( Introduction à la metaphysique which is useful as a preface to the study of his three large books. He detailed in this essay his philosophical program, realized in the Creative evolution. 16 On the death of Gabriel Tarde, the sociologist and philosopher, in 1904, bergson succeeded him in the Chair of Modern Philosophy. From 4 to 8 September of that year he visited Geneva, attending the second International Congress of Philosophy, when he lectured on The mind and Thought: a philosophical Illusion (Le cerveau et la pensée: une illusion philosophique).
The work was published in the same year by félix Alcan. He also gave courses in Clermont-Ferrand on the Pre-socratics, in particular on Heraclitus. 16 Bergson dedicated Time and Free will to jules Lachelier ( fr ) (18321918 then public education minister, a disciple of Félix ravaisson (18131900) and the author of a philosophical work On the founding of Induction ( du fondement de l'induction, 1871). Lachelier endeavoured "to substitute everywhere force for inertia, life for death, and liberty for fatalism". (Bergson owed much to both of these teachers of the École normale supérieure. Compare his memorial address on ravaisson, who died in 1900.) Bergson settled again in Paris in 1888, 17 and after teaching for some months at the municipal college, known as the college rollin, he received an appointment at the lycée henri-quatre, where he remained for.
There, he read Darwin and gave a course on his theories. 16 Although Bergson had previously endorsed Lamarckism and its theory of the heritability of acquired characteristics, he came to prefer Darwin's hypothesis of gradual variations, which were more compatible with his continual vision of life. 16 In 1896 he published his second major work, entitled Matter and Memory. This rather difficult work investigates the function of the brain and undertakes an analysis of perception and memory, leading up to a careful consideration of the problems of the relation of body and mind. Bergson had spent years of research in preparation for each of his three large works. This is especially obvious in Matter and Memory, where he showed a thorough acquaintance with the extensive pathological investigations which had been carried out during the period. In 1898 Bergson became maître de conférences at his alma mater, École normale supérieure, and later in the same year received a promotion to a professorship. The year 1900 saw him installed as Professor at the collège de France, where he accepted the Chair of Greek and Roman Philosophy in succession to Charles lévêque ( fr ). At the first International Congress of Philosophy, held in Paris during the first five days of August 1900, bergson read a short, but important, paper, "Psychological Origins of the belief in the law of causality" ( Sur les origines psychologiques de notre croyance.
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16 When he was nineteen, he entered the École normale supérieure. During this period, he read Herbert Spencer. 16 he obtained there the degree of licence ès lettres, and this was followed by that of agrégation de philosophie in 1881 from the University of Paris. The same year he received a teaching appointment at the lycée in Angers, the ancient capital of Anjou. Two years later he settled at the lycée blaise-pascal (Clermont-Ferrand) ( fr ) in Clermont-Ferrand, capital of the puy-de-dôme département. The year after his arrival at Clermont-Ferrand Bergson displayed his ability in the humanities by the publication of an edition of extracts from Lucretius, with margaret a critical study of the text and of the materialist cosmology of the poet (1884 a work whose repeated editions. attest to its value in promoting Classics among French youth. While teaching and lecturing in this part of his country (the auvergne region bergson found time for private study and original work. He crafted his dissertation Time and Free will, which was submitted, along with a short Latin thesis on Aristotle ( quid Aristoteles de loco senserit, "On the concept of Place in Aristotle for his doctoral degree which was awarded by the University of Paris.
He had previously received a jewish religious education. 13 Between 14 and 16, however, he lost his faith. According to hude (1990 this moral crisis is tied to his discovery of the station theory of evolution, according to which humanity shares common ancestry with modern primates, a process sometimes construed as not needing a creative deity. 14 While at the lycée bergson won a prize for his scientific work and another, in 1877 when he was eighteen, for the solution of a mathematical problem. His solution was published the following year in nouvelles Annales de mathématiques. 15 It was his first published work. After some hesitation as to whether his career should lie in the sphere of the sciences or that of the humanities, he decided in favour of the latter, to the dismay of his teachers.
citizen. Henri bergson married louise neuberger, a cousin of Marcel Proust (18711922 in 1891. (The novelist served as best man at Bergson's wedding.) 12 Henri and louise bergson had a daughter, jeanne, born deaf in 1896. Bergson's sister, mina bergson (also known as moina mathers married the English occult author Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, a founder of the hermetic Order of the golden Dawn, and the couple later relocated to paris as well. Bergson lived the quiet life of a french professor, marked by the publication of his four principal works: in 1889, time and Free will ( Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience ) in 1896, matter and Memory ( Matière et mémoire ). He then replaced Gabriel Tarde in the Chair of Modern Philosophy, which he held until 1920. The public attended his open courses in large numbers. Education and career edit Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience (Dissertation, 1889) quid Aristoteles de loco senserit (Dissertation, 1889) Bergson attended the lycée fontanes (known as the lycée condorcet 187018present) in Paris from 1868 to 1878.
Palais Garnier (the old Paris opera house) in 1859. His father, the pianist. Michał bergson, was of a, polish Jewish paper background (originally bearing the name bereksohn). His great-grandmother, temerl Bergson, was a well-known patroness and benefactor of Polish Jewry, especially those associated with the. 7 8 His mother, katherine levison, daughter of a yorkshire doctor, was from an English and Irish Jewish background. The bereksohns were a famous Jewish entrepreneurial family 9 of Polish descent. Henri bergson's great-great-grandfather, szmul jakubowicz sonnenberg, called Zbytkower, was a prominent banker and a protégé of Stanisław ii augustus, 10 11 King of Poland from 1764 to 1795.
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For other uses, see. Henri-louis Bergson (French: bɛʁksɔn ; ) was. French, jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until. 4, bergson is known for his influential arguments that processes of immediate experience and intuition are more significant than abstract rationalism and science for understanding reality. He was awarded the 1927, nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented". In 1930 France awarded him its highest honour, the. Grand-Croix de la legion d'honneur. Bergson's great popularity created a controversy in France where his views were seen as opposing the secular and scientific attitude adopted by the republic's officials. 6, contents, biography edit, overview edit, bergson was born in the rue lamartine in Paris, not far from the.