CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link ) Edward Henry Knight (1876). Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary: a description of tools, Instruments, machines, Processes, and Engineering; History of Inventions; General Technological Vocabulary; and Digest of Mechanical Appliances in Science and the Arts. "Machine for manufacturing wood so as to be used as a substitute for curled hair in stuffing beds". "Improved capillary material for filling gas and air carburettors". michigan State Agricultural Society (1856). Transactions of the State Agricultural Society of Michigan: With Reports of county Agricultural Societies, for the year 1849-59, vol. "Air filter and cooler". new strands to the wood wool story botting, mike in wood Based Panels International, june 1, 1997 peter.
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The suitability of Eucalyptus grandis and book two provenances of Pinus kesiya for wood wool-cement slab manufacture by awkes; obinson; Publisher: London : Tropical Products Institute, 1978. Isbn, isbn gert Jan Bom;. Evaporative air-conditioning: Applications for Environmentally Friendly cooling. iso 9567:1989 woodworking machines — horizontal shredding machines for wood wool production, quadruple effect — nomenclature iso 9615:1989 woodworking machines — vertical shredding machines for wood wool production, with hydraulic clamping — nomenclature "Our wood wool is washed and cleaned to remove as much dust as possible" kiln dried. The dictionary of Trade Products, manufacturing, and Technical Terms: With a definition of the moneys, weights, and measures of All countries. bertram Blount; Arthur george Bloxam (1905). Chemistry for Engineers and Manufacturers. Griffin and Company, limited. wood wool diapers, advertisements Advertisement for "sanitary wood wool sheets 1895. Hare and Edward Martin (editors) (1897). Therapeutic gazette series iii volume xiii.
Times Mirror Magazines: 6466. wood wool applications david Daniel (2005). market Analysis of Erosion control Mats United States Department of Agriculture wood wool Cement boards, Production and use, page 284 in "The Ecology of building Materials Bjørn Berge, filip Henley, howard Liddell, Architectural Press, 2001, isbn, isbn jim. Bowyer; Rubin Shmulsky; John. Forest Products and wood Science. Bow and Arrow: The comprehensive guide to Equipment, technique, and Competition. The complete guide to soilless Gardening long (1st.). bs 2548 Specification for wood wool for general packaging purposes (British Standard) a b bs 2548 bsi british Standards wood Based Panels International, Friday, march 1 1996 european Commission Research - industrial Technologies, the Black poplar roger. Wood-using Industries of New Hampshire.
Commodity code: wood wool (excelsior) nelson courtlandt Brown (1919). Forest Products, about Their Manufacture and Use. a b Forest Products Laboratory (1948). Excelsior manufacture — Original report dated may 1948 — reviewed and reaffirmed 1961 (PDF). Dept of Agriculture, forest Service. Standard Industrial Classification Index sic 2429 for "Wood wool (excelsior hts number for wood wool (excelsior) harmonized Commodity description and Coding System (hs page 2, 4405.00 wood wool "Federal Specification: Excelsior, wood, fabricated Pads and Bulk form". "The Tradition of the excelsior stuffing". "Solar air conditioners — the hotter it gets, the better they work".
Patents related to "slivering machines" for producing the small wood shreds "known as excelsior " were listed in 1876. 37 The earliest, a machine for "Manufacturing wood to be used as a substitute for curled hair in stuffing beds" was patented in the. In 1842; 38 however, the product had no specific name when the process was first patented. The 1868 patent, "Improved capillary material for filling gas and air carburettors 39 was for a new use for "fibres torn from the wood by suitable machinery" to be "sold and used as filling for mattresses, its commercial name being 'excelsior'." This is the earliest. 40 In 1906, the now-common use of excelsior in the cooling pads of evaporative coolers appeared in a patent that stated, "I have found that excelsior makes a very cheap and good material for this purpose." 41 In the beginning of the 20th century wood. By 1930, wood wool cement boards were being widely produced. 42 In the 21st century, excelsior appears in numerous patents for erosion control and sediment control methods and devices; for example, the 2006 "Sediment control device and system." 43 A few late-twentieth-century patents on these uses refer to "excelsior/wood wool." 44 References edit.
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25 wood wool language can be produced in either horizontal 26 or vertical shredding machines. 27 A possible further processing option is washing, which removes dust. 28 wood-wool processing may involve drying to reduce moisture 29 in compliance with local requirements, as wallpaper in the. 19 Finally, wood wool can be dyed to produce a variety of colored products. 30 History edit a different product was once known as "wood wool as well as "pine needle-wool or "pine wood-wool." 31 According. Littell, 32 it was produced in Breslau, silesia (today wrocław, poland) by von Pannewich, who mentioned that in 1842 five hundred counterpanes made of it were purchased for a hospital in vienna.
The process was chemical and made use of the leaves (needles) of Scots Pine. In England, yet another product known as wood wool was produced by the chemical breakdown of wood strips by means of sulphurous acid, for use in such applications as absorbent material in surgical dressings. 33 Another application of this product was use in sanitary towels, as shown in advertisements from in Britain 34 35 for "wood wool diapers" or "sanitary wood wool sheets". European "wood wool" was known in America in the late nineteenth century as being distinctly different from excelsior. 36 The wood wool that is the topic of this article is what has traditionally been known as excelsior in the United States.
If sections of it wear down because of repeated targeting, the bale can be soaked liberally since it then expands and holds water, just like a dry sponge. 16 garden mulches and as a growing medium for hydroponic gardens. 17 Properties edit wood wool fibers can be compressed and when the pressure is removed they resume their initial volume. This is a useful property for minimizing their volume when shipping. Due to its high volume and large surface area, wood wool can be used for applications where water or moisture retention is necessary.
The width of wood wool fibers varies from.5 to 20 mm, while their length is usually around 500 mm (depending on the production process). In the uk there are specifications for dimensions, pH, moisture content and freedom from dust and small pieces, set by British Standard bs 2548 for wood wool for general packaging purposes. 18 This standard was originally issued in 1954 and subsequently re-issued in 1986. 19 When these fibers are bonded with cement or magnesite, bonded wood wool boards are produced. Slabs of bonded wood wool are considered environmentally friendly construction and insulation materials because they do not contain organic binders. 20 21 Production edit Excelsior is cut from "bolts" (round, halved, quartered, or otherwise split logs 4 ) of poplar 22 (for example aspen 23 pine, spruce or eucalyptus. 24 For evaporative cooler pads, the dominant source is the aspen.
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9 cooling pads in home evaporative cooler systems known as "swamp coolers." 10 bedding for animals and summary their cages. 11 wood real wool serves cushion the animals while providing some warmth and absorbing waste. For example, its found on dairies, in hutches and in cardboard boxes when shipping day-old poultry within the. Citation needed when dyed green, the material can be used as an artificial grass in Easter egg baskets. 12 This was popular before the prevalence of plastics. Mats and blankets for erosion control. 13 a material used in the production of cement-bonded wood wool boards. 14 15 when banded into a bale form, it used as an archery backstop, comparable to how a straw bale would be used for the same purpose. If protected from the elements, an excelsior archery backstop can last for many years.
7, grades and classifications edit, the 1973. Federal procurement specification ppp-e-911, cancelled in 1991, categorized "wood excelsior" products according to the following table of terms and dimensions: 8, table. Strand size for type i class a and b excelsior. Grade, nomenclature, thickness of strand, Inch, width of strand, Inch. Superfine wood wool.006.020 2 wood wool.012.020 3 Extra fine.015.031 4 Fine.018.031 5 Medium.021.041 6 coarse or ribbon.015.167 Applications edit a patent illustrating cooling pads of excelsior Excelsior has women many applications, examples include:. A stuffing for plush toys or for real animals in taxidermy. It was traditionally used in stuffing Teddy bears and is still is for the muzzles of some collectible bears.
swamp coolers, for erosion control. Contents, terminology edit, in the. United States the term wood wool is reserved for finer grades of excelsior. 2 3, the. Forest Service stated in 19 that, "In this country the product has no other general name, but in most other countries all grades of excelsior are known as wood wool. In the United States the name wood wool is reserved for only a small proportion of the output consisting of certain special grades of extra thin and narrow stock." 4, the. Standard Industrial Classification, index sic is 2429 for the product "Wood wool (excelsior. 5, the same term is used by the United States for the external trade number under which wood wool is monitored: hts number: 4405.00.00 Description: wood wool (excelsior wood flour. The number 4405.00 is applied to wood wool by the. World Customs Organization in the, harmonized Commodity description and Coding System (HS).
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