The rest can be explained in the main body of the answer. Conclusion - this is the place for suggestions or improvements (if any). The conclusion should always be positive even if the answer has a negative tone. . eg: If one is asked to "enumerate the problems in India's pds system". Conclude by suggesting some steps to tackle the problems. Analytic Approach - this is the essential requirement of an administrator.
Inspiring stories from gandhiji's, lIFE
Vague and round about answering will not fetch marks. Write answer to the question that is asked, not what we know about the will be helpful if one is able to gauge the purpose of the question. Eg: Essay on "Women Empowerment. "Women Empowerment?" and "Women Empowerment!" would be different - not from content point of view but orientation of the : in history if a question is asked regarding "rise of Gandhiji. India write the answer related to gandhiji's arrival in India and his initial activities that made him a leader. Confine the answer to "rise" do not write about the 1920s, 1930s etc. Introduction - the introduction to the answer should contain a brief of what is to follow in the answer. By reading the introduction the examiner will come to know that you have understood the question. The examiner will also be aware of your viewpoint and will not have to search for it in the answer. . This type of introduction is different from an introduction in an university examination - in an University examination, the introduction would contain the background of the topic you are dealing with in that particular : If we are asked a question in polity - "President. In the introduction itself we will say that "Our parliamentary system necessitates presence of Article 74 in the constitution, writers but in spite of Article 74 the president can act on his own in certain circumstances delphi if required".
Exceeding the word the limit may lead to problems in completing the paper. There is no need to count the exact number of words in the answer. During preparation itself one should know the length of the page that one needs to write for a 100, 200, 250, 300 and 600 words answer. Non completion of any paper is an unforgivable offence for an upsc civil. Gauge the question paper quickly and assess whether it will be difficult to complete - in such cases reduce the length of certain answers but ensure that all questions are given due respect and the paper is completed. Answer writing in upsc examination, specificity - one has to be very specific in the answer with regard to scope or focus of the question. The answer should be such that it satisfies the demand of the question.
When an answer requires 250 words or more, thesis it is better to prepare synoptic notes in rough. This involves quickly jotting down the main points we are to write in the answer. Arranging the points in order of friend importance. This gives a good structure and flow to the answer. Try as far as possible to stick to the word limit mentioned in the question. Good control over language will help you to write more points in lesser number of words. Read the editorials of the newspaper and try to use that language in your answers.
But Reddi makes a good point that mayo overlooks the broad opposition to child marriage that was felt by Indian reformers. Still, i would argue the response to mayo's. Mother India by people like reddi was so urgent because mayo did in fact draw blood in the book, pointing out things about Indian society that were in fact genuinely embarrassing to the Indian nationalists. Further, mayo's muckraking book may have had a positive effect on the age of consent debate in India - shortly after her book was published, the legislative assembly did pass a compromise Age of Consent increase (13 for married girls, 14 for unmarried girls). Is it possible katherine mayo, "evil-minded" as she may have been, actually did some good by publishing this book? Answer writing is the key to getting good marks in main Examination. 2 main areas of concentration should be meeting expectation of upsc answering style and Presentation.
Gandhiji : The 'quit India' speeches
Here are some of the titles Sinha lists: Father India (1927 sister India (1928 my mother India (1930 a son of Mother poverty India answers (1928 long live india: What a son Has to say about Mother and Father India (1932 An Englishman Defends Mother India. Mayo (1927 miss mayos Cruelty to mother India (no date mother India ka jawab (The reply to mother India) (1928). (The list goes.). One of the most important replies to mother India was. Muthulakshmi reddi, the first Indian woman legislator. Her reply was, sinha suggests, probably not published, though it was delivered as a speech in Madras, organized by the women's Indian Association.
Reddi responds to a number of mayo's arguments, but let's just focus specifically on the question of child marriage: Reddi : Reformers of to-day do not deny there is the system of early marriage prevalent among the high cast Hindus with all its attendant evils. Again for the evils of early marriage she goes for a list which was drawn up some 33 years back by the women surgeons of this country when a bill for raising the age of consent was brought by one the of our Hindu brethren. Again in 1925 when the question for further raising the age of consent came before the Assembly there were speakers both for and against such a measure-those for said there was no text in Hindu religion to sanction early marriage and those against affirmed that. Even at that period, the countless women's associations through India held meetings and asked for reform. Reddi has to concede that mayo's arguments are based on reality, but only a partial reality. On the specific question of which castes practiced, i'm not actually sure whether Reddi claims that it was limited to Brahmins or mayo's claims that it was universal is correct.
Coming as I do, sir, from Bengal, i know what is the opinion of the majority of the people there. And mayo has several others making statements along these lines (which bear somewhat of a resemblance to more recent debates over things like the Uniform civil Code, i would argue). Of course, quite a number of political reformers and Indian nationalists strongly opposed child marriage, even suggesting earlier reform bills that the British themselves had voted down. As Sinha points out, mayo doesn't refer to them much if at all. She does, however, mention Gandhi's many condemnations of various kinds of social backwardness, on not just child marriage but also the treatment of widows as well as untouchability. She loves, gandhi, who (unwittingly, of course) gives her ample material by which to tear apart the flaws in Indian society.
Alongside the true observations, there of course are many statements mayo makes in the book that are either gross exaggerations or outright falsehoods. She piles it on so thick that she almost undoes her own argument about the evils of "Hindu tradition." If morals are in fact so debased, if hygiene is so bad, if girls are so mistreated - how is it that the Indian population continued. So we are again in position to waffle. On the one hand, mayo's book can hardly be seen as credible, both because of her involvement with British authorities and because of her errors and exaggerations on points of substance. On the other hand, many of her points are valid, which puts Indian nationalists and Euro-American liberals in an awkward position. We see versions of this still today, in the ongoing debates about "global patriarchy especially in the recent push by western feminism against the repression of Muslim women by muslim men. (mayo's book is exactly the kind of thing Spivak is talking about in her various critical engagements with western feminism, in essays like "Three women's Texts and a critique of Imperialism." It's odd that, as far as i know, Spivak never mentions mayo, emphasizing instead. More than fifty books and pamphlets were published in response to mayo's book. It also led to a broadway play and almost made it to the movies.
Write a short note on, quit India movement
S., and India itself, it was remarkably successful, though it was roundly criticized by the Indians themselves, who would, as everyone knows, continue to agitate for independence through the 1920s and 30s. While it is essential to always keep in mind that mayo wrote this book to support the British colonial authority, one needs to keep in mind that nothing about her official contacts was known at the time. Mother India provoked amongst Indians, and even among some British and American readers, was all based on the assumption that her assessment was sincere - if slanted., what i've been surprised by on reading the actual text of mayo's book is how many of her. And her"s about the public child marriage debate in 1925 (which involved many Indian politicians) are all a matter of public record: many prominent Hindus did support child marriage. She"s people like amar Nath Dutt, who is on record in the legislative assembly debates of 1925 as saying the following: we have no right to thrust our advanced apple views upon our less advanced countrymen. Our villages are torn with factions. If the age of consent is raised summary to 13, rightly or wrongly we will find that there will be inquisitions by the police at the instance of membersof an opposite faction in the village and people will be put to disgrace and trouble. I would ask government. To withdraw the bill at once.
And she says it business again at the beginning of Chapter 1: It was dissatisfaction with this status that sent me to India, to see what a volunteer unsubsidized, uncommitted, and unattached, could observe of common things in human life. But the claim to autonomy wasn't true; according to Mrinalini sinha, mayo had been in direct contact with the British administration - in fact, with. Central Intelligence division in India (the officer she was in contact with is named in her letters. They had encouraged her to write a book critical of Indian habits and traditional Indian practices, partly as a rejoinder to gandhi, who was making major strides in building a mass-movement to end British rule. The central Intelligence division set up meetings with important people for her, and basically paved the way for her to do the exact research that would best support their claim that their rule over India was a benefit to the Indians themselves. Because of the British role, we can say that Mother India is, quite literally, a work of Imperial propaganda. In light of the effect it had on readers in England, the.
beginning in the late 19th century. These were American laws sharply restricting immigration from Asia and Africa. The laws were essentially racist in nature: the government wanted to encourage white european immigrants, and discourage darker-skinned people. Some Asians who had been born in the. Had their citizenship stripped from them at this time., katherine mayo commits one act of outright deception in the opening pages of the book. In the foreword, she states that she is traveling through India and recording her observations without any assistance from any government agency: For this reason the manuscript of this book has not been submitted to any member of the government of India, nor to any. It has, however, been reviewed by certain public health officials of international eminence who are familiar with the Indian field.
But i've been surprised by the margaret book itself, jaundiced and insulting though. And the story behind is more interesting than Gandhi probably knew. I taught part of it this week in my 'travel writers' course, and below is some of what I learned about Katherine mayo in the process. Most of the background information below comes from Mrinalini sinha, who edited a volume. Selections from Mother India (Michigan, 2000). Sinha's long preface, from which I derive most of the following information, is one i would recommend for anyone interested in the often vexed relationship between western feminism and anti-colonial nationalism. Mayo was originally from Ridgeway, pennsylvania, and had earlier written several books celebrating, of all things, the state's rural police force. Her politics were conservative in the American sense of the time: she was hostile to immigrants, blacks, and Catholics.
Write a short note on the, gandhian Era (1919-1934)
Mohandas Gandhi had a harsh rejoinder to katherine mayo's notorious. Mother India, a book biography that had a huge impact on American and British views of India in the late 1920s: Gandhi: This book is cleverly and powerfully written. The carefully chosen"tions give it the false appearance of a truthful book. But the impression it leaves on my mind, is that it is the report of a drain inspector sent out with the one purpose of opening and examining the drains of the country to be reported upon, or to give a graphic description of the. Mayo had confessed that she had come to India merely to open out and examine the drains of India, there would perhaps be little to complain about her compilation. But she declared her abominable and patently wrong conclusion with a certain amount of triumph: 'the drains are India'. For years i essentially bought Gandhi's take on the book, and didn't bother to read the infamous 'drain inspector's report'. It isn't hard to imagine what a polemical critique of the Indian practice of child marriage (which remained on the books until after independence the mistreatment of widows, and hygiene might look like - why bother?