The vertical dimension's cupola or dome is designed as a pyramid, conical or other mountain-like shape, once again using principle of concentric circles and squares (see below). 4 Scholars suggest that this shape is inspired by cosmic mountain of Meru or Himalayan kailasa, the abode of gods according to vedic mythology. 43 a hindu temple has a shikhara (Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the central core of the temple. These spires come in many designs and shapes, but they all have mathematical precision and geometric symbolism. One of the common principles found in Hindu temple spires is circles and turning-squares theme (left and a concentric layering design (right) that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky. 4 52 In larger temples, the central space typically is surrounded by an ambulatory for the devotee to walk around and ritually circumambulate the purusa, the universal essence. 4 Often this space is visually decorated with carvings, paintings or images meant to inspire the devotee.
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The surya pada is flanked by the padas of Satya (Truth) deity on militar one side and Indra (king of gods) deity on other. The east and north faces of most temples feature a mix of gods and demi-gods; while west and south feature demons and demi-gods related to the underworld. 47 This vastu purusha mandala plan and symbolism is systematically seen in ancient Hindu temples on Indian subcontinent as well as those in southeast Asia, with regional creativity and variations. 48 49 Beneath the mandalas central square(s) is the space for the formless shapeless all pervasive all connecting Universal Spirit, the highest reality, the purusha. 50 This space is sometimes referred to as garbha-griya (literally womb house) a small, perfect square, windowless, enclosed space without ornamentation that represents universal essence. 43 In or near this space is typically a murti (idol). This is the main deity idol, and this varies with each temple. Often it is this idol that gives the temple a local name, such as Visnu temple, krishna temple, rama temple, narayana temple, siva temple, lakshmi temple, ganesha temple, durga temple, hanuman temple, surya temple, and others. 17 It is this garbha-griya which devotees seek for darsana (literally, a sight of knowledge, 51 or vision 43 ). Above the vastu-purusha-mandala is a superstructure with a dome called Shikhara in north India, and Vimana in south India, that stretches towards the sky. 43 Sometimes, in makeshift temples, the dome may be replaced with symbolic bamboo with few leaves at the top.
Each supports the other. 4 The square is divided into perfect 64 (or in some cases 81) sub-squares called padas. 33 44 Each pada is conceptually assigned to a symbolic element, sometimes in the form the of a deity. The central square(s) of the 64 or 81 grid is dedicated to the Brahman (not to be confused with Brahmin and are called Brahma padas. The 49 grid design is called Sthandila and of great importance in creative expressions of Hindu temples in south India, particularly in Prakaras. 45 The symmetric Vastu-purusa-mandala grids are sometimes combined to form a temple superstructure with two or more attached squares. 46 The temples face sunrise, and the entrance for the devotee is typically this east side. The mandala pada facing sunrise is dedicated to surya deity (Sun).
The name is a composite sanskrit word with three of the most important components of the plan. Mandala means circle, purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while vastu means the dwelling structure. 43 Vastupurushamandala is a yantra. 27 The listing design lays out a hindu temple in a symmetrical, self-repeating structure derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality and mathematical principles. The four cardinal directions help create the axis of a hindu temple, around which is formed a perfect square in the space available. The circle of mandala circumscribes the square. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow).
34 Silpa Prakasa provides brief introduction to 12 types of Hindu temples. Other texts, such as Pancaratra Prasada Prasadhana compiled by daniel Smith 35 and Silpa ratnakara compiled by narmada sankara 36 provide a more extensive list of Hindu temple types. Ancient Sanskrit manuals for temple construction discovered in Rajasthan, in northwestern region of India, include sutradhara mandanas Prasadamandana (literally, manual for planning and building a temple). 37 Manasara, a text of south Indian origin, estimated to be in circulation by the 7th century ad, is a guidebook on south Indian temple design and construction. 8 38 Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another Sanskrit text from the 9th century describing the art of temple building in India in south and central India. 39 40 In north India, brihat-samhita by varāhamihira is the widely cited ancient Sanskrit manual from 6th century describing the design and construction of Nagara style of Hindu temples. The plan edit a hindu temple design follows a geometrical design called vastu-purusha-mandala.
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27 28 by the 6th century ad, sanskrit manuals for in India. 29 Vastu-sastra manuals included chapters on home construction, town planning, 26 and how efficient villages, towns and kingdoms integrated temples, water bodies and gardens within them to achieve harmony with nature. 30 31 While it is unclear, states Barnett, 32 as to whether these temple and town planning texts were theoretical studies and if or when they were properly implemented in practice, the manuals suggest that town planning and Hindu temples were conceived as ideals. 26 Ancient India produced many sanskrit manuals for Hindu temple design and construction, covering arrangement of business spaces (above) to every aspect of its completion. Yet, the silpins were given wide latitude to experiment and express their creativity.
33 The silpa Prakasa of Odisha, authored by ramacandra Bhattaraka kaulacara in the ninth or tenth centuries ad, is another Sanskrit treatise on Temple Architecture. 34 Silpa Prakasa describes the geometric principles in every aspect of the temple and symbolism such as 16 emotions of human beings carved as 16 types marathi of female figures. These styles were perfected in Hindu temples prevalent in eastern states of India. Other ancient texts found expand these architectural principles, suggesting that different parts of India developed, invented and added their own interpretations. For example, in saurastra tradition of temple building found in western states of India, the feminine form, expressions and emotions are depicted in 32 types of Nataka-stri compared to 16 types described in Silpa Prakasa.
Site edit The appropriate site for a temple, suggest ancient Sanskrit texts, is near water and gardens, where lotus and flowers bloom, where swans, ducks and other birds are heard, where animals rest without fear of injury or harm. 4 These harmonious places were recommended in these texts with the explanation that such are the places where gods play, and thus the best site for Hindu temples. 4 8 Hindu temple sites cover a wide range. The most common sites are those near water bodies, embedded in nature, such as the above at Badami, karnataka. The gods always play where lakes are, where the suns rays are warded off by umbrellas of lotus leaf clusters, and where clear waterpaths are made by swans whose breasts toss the white lotus hither and thither, where swans, ducks, curleys and paddy birds are. The gods always play where rivers have for their braclets the sound of curleys and the voice of swans for their speech, water as their garment, carps for their zone, the flowering trees on their banks as earrings, the confluence of rivers as their hips.
The gods always play where groves are near, rivers, mountains and springs, and in towns with pleasure gardens. — Brhat Samhita.60.4-8, 6th Century ad 24 While major Hindu temples are recommended at sangams (confluence of rivers river banks, lakes and seashore, brhat Samhita and Puranas suggest temples may also be built where a natural source of water is not present. Here too, they recommend that a pond be built preferably in front or to the left of the temple with water gardens. If water is neither present naturally nor by design, water is symbolically present at the consecration of temple or the deity. Temples may also be built, suggests Visnudharmottara in Part iii of Chapter 93, 25 inside caves and carved stones, on hill tops affording peaceful views, mountain slopes overlooking beautiful valleys, inside forests and hermitages, next to gardens, or at the head of a town street. Manuals edit Ancient builders of Hindu temples created manuals of architecture, called Vastu-sastra (literally "science" of dwelling; vas-tu is a composite sanskrit word; vas means "reside tu means "you these contain Vastu-vidya (literally, knowledge of dwelling). 26 There exist many vastu-sastras on the art of building temples, such as one by Thakkura Pheru, describing where and how temples should be built.
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In political and economic life, hindu temples have served as a venue for the succession within dynasties and landmarks around which economic activity thrived. 23 Forms and designs of Hindu temples edit main article: Hindu temple architecture Almost all Hindu temples take two forms: a house or parts a palace. A house-themed temple is a simple shelter which serves as a deitys home. The temple is a place where the devotee visits, just like he or she would visit a friend or relative. In Bhakti school of Hinduism, temples are venues for puja, which is a hospitality ritual, where the deity is honored, and where devotee calls upon, attends to and connects with the deity. In other schools of Hinduism, the person may simply perform jap, or meditation, or yoga, or introspection in his or her temple. Palace-themed temples often incorporate more elaborate and monumental architecture.
18 19 At the center of the temple, typically below and sometimes above or next to the deity, is mere hollow space with no decoration, symbolically representing Purusa, the supreme Principle, the sacred Universal, one without form, which is present everywhere, connects everything, and. A hindu temple is meant to encourage reflection, facilitate purification of ones mind, and trigger the process of inner realization within the devotee. 4 The specific process is left to the devotees school of belief. The primary deity of different Hindu temples varies to reflect this spiritual spectrum. 20 21 In Hindu tradition, there is no dividing line between the secular and the sacred. 8 In the same spirit, hindu temples are not just sacred spaces, they are also secular spaces. Their meaning and purpose have extended beyond spiritual life to social rituals and daily life, offering thus a social meaning. Some temples have served as a venue to mark festivals, to celebrate arts through dance and music, to get married or commemorate marriages, 22 commemorate the birth of a child, other significant life events, or mark the death of a loved one.
layer of Manusha padas signifying human life; All these layers surround Brahma padas, which signifies creative energy and the site for temples primary idol for darsana. Finally at the very center of Brahma padas is Grabhgriya (Purusa Space signifying Universal Principle present in everything and everyone. 4 In ancient Indian texts, a temple is a place for Tirtha pilgrimage. 4 It is a sacred site whose ambience and design attempts to symbolically condense the ideal tenets of Hindu way of life. 17 All the cosmic elements that create and sustain life are present in a hindu temple from fire to water, from images of nature to deities, from the feminine to the masculine, from the fleeting sounds and incense smells to the eternal nothingness yet universality. 4 Susan Lewandowski states 8 that the underlying principle in a hindu temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected. The pilgrim is welcomed through 64-grid or 81-grid mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life the pursuit of artha (prosperity, wealth the pursuit of kama (pleasure, sex.
India and, nepal, in southeast Asian countries such. Sri lanka, cambodia, vietnam, and islands of, indonesia and, malaysia, 13 14 and countries such as Canada, the caribbean, fiji, france, guyana, kenya, mauritius, the netherlands, south Africa, suriname, tanzania, trinidad and Tobago, uganda, the United Kingdom, the United States, and countries with a significant. 15 The current state and outer appearance of Hindu temples reflect arts, materials and designs as they evolved over two millennia; they also reflect the effect of conflicts between Hinduism and Islam since the 12th century. 16 The Swaminarayanan Akshardham in Robbinsville, new Jersey, united States, between the new York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, was inaugurated in 2014 as the world's largest paper Hindu temple. 1 Contents Significance and meaning of a hindu temple edit a hindu temple reflects a synthesis of arts, the ideals of dharma, beliefs, values, and the way of life cherished under Hinduism. It is a link between man, deities, and the Universal Purusa in a sacred space. 17 The 9x9 (81) grid Parama sayika layout plan (above) found in large ceremonial Hindu temples. It is one of many grids used to build Hindu temples.
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A, hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of write god. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs. 2 3, the symbolism and structure of a hindu temple are rooted in Vedic traditions, deploying circles and squares. 4, a temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmos—presenting the good, the evil and the human, as well as the elements of Hindu sense of cyclic time and the essence of life—symbolically presenting dharma, kama, artha, moksa, and karma. 5 6 7, the spiritual principles symbolically represented in Hindu temples are given in the ancient Sanskrit texts of India (for example, vedas and, upanishads while their structural rules are described in various ancient Sanskrit treatises on architecture (Brhat Samhita, vastu sastras). 8 9, the layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, and reflect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism. 4, a hindu temple is a spiritual destination for many hindus, as well as landmarks around which ancient arts, community celebrations and economy have flourished. Hindu temples come in many styles, are situated in diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs, 12 yet almost all of them share certain core ideas, symbolism and themes. They are found in south Asia particularly.