Modern versions of Semitic script include the hebrew script and the Arabic script. Their most prominent characteristic is that they have graphs for consonants but not for vowels. The inventors of the semitic orthography apparently took the acrophonic principle, that of representing sounds by pictures of things whose names begin with that sound, from Egyptian hieroglyphic, a form of writing not different in principle from akkadian cuneiform. The hieroglyphic sign, depicting waves of water, represented the sound /n the first sound of the spoken word for water. By means of this principle a 22-graph system was constructed with a memorized order, beginning alef, bet, gimel, that was suitable for representing a full range of meanings. These graphs represented the consonants of the language, vowels remaining unrepresented. This fact has led some scholars, notably gelb and havelock, to claim that Semitic scripts are not true alphabets but rather unvocalized syllabaries. Other scholars, noting that the graphs represent consonants rather than syllables—for example, pa, pe, pi, po, and pu would all be represented by the same character—insist that the script is an alphabet.
Writing system - wikipedia
The methods used for representing syllables that did not have distinctive graphs were quite unsystematic. The first writing system consistently based on the sound structure of a language was Linear b, a mycenaean Greek orthography developed about 1400 bce and deciphered in 1952 by michael Ventris, an English architect and cryptographer. The script is strictly syllabic; each consonant-vowel pair is given a distinctive graph. As an example, a set of syllables that an alphabetic system would represent with the consonant p plus a vowel are all represented in Linear B assignments by different graphs. Although the script is highly systematic, it provides a limited representation of the phonology of Mycenaean Greek. Greek contains many syllables that are not simple consonant-vowel combinations, and not all consonantal sounds are followed by vowels. Linear b is thus an incomplete script for representing the phonological structures of the spoken language. Hence, there are usually several ways of reading a series of Linear B graphs, and a correct reading depends upon the readers knowing what the text is about. The final stage in the evolution of writing systems was the discovery resume of the alphabetic principle, the procedure of breaking the syllable into its constituent consonantal and vowel sounds. ( see also alphabet.) According to the British linguist geoffrey sampson, most, and probably all, alphabetic scripts derive from a single ancestor: the semitic alphabet, created sometime in the 2nd millennium bce. The semitic script was invented by speakers of some semitic language, possibly Phoenician, who lived in the northern part of the fertile Crescent.
With the substitution of a blunt writing stylus for a pointed one, the symbols become less picturelike and more conventionalized. The yardage writing system takes the name cuneiform from the shape of the strokes that form the symbols (from Latin cuneus, wedge). The next major stage in the evolution of Sumerian writing was the adoption of the phonographic principle, the use of a sign to represent a common sound rather than a common meaning. For example, the graph representing water appears to have been used also to represent the locative suffix in, because the latter sounded the same as, or similar to, the word water. It is as if in English a person used the word ball to stand for a person named Bill on the grounds that it is easy to represent the ball with a circular graph while there is no obvious way to represent Bill, and the. The sumerian script, however, remained primarily logographic and resorted to phonographic signs only when forced to, for representing unpicturable words and for distinguishing ambiguous graphs. Sumerian script was adopted in the 3rd millennium bce by the akkadians, who greatly expanded the phonographic properties of the script. The Assyrians and the babylonians, both speaking dialects of the akkadian language, were responsible for most of the cuneiform writing in a form known today as akkadian cuneiform. Alphabetic systems While cuneiform had many graphs that represented syllables, many syllables were not represented.
To serve as a reminder of the contents of the envelope so that business every reader would not need to break open the envelope to read the contents, corresponding shapes were impressed upon the envelope. But if the content was marked on the envelope, there was no need to put the tokens in an envelope at all; the envelope could be flattened into a convenient surface and the shapes impressed. Now that there was no need for the tokens at all, their message was simply inscribed into the clay. These shapes, drawn in the wet clay with a reed stylus or a pointed stick, constituted the first writing. The historical record is much more explicit after 3200 bce and reveals clearly the stages involved in the evolution from a limited system of notation suitable for recording particular events into a full general-purpose orthography. Archaic Sumerian used mostly graphs representing numerals, names for objects, and names of persons. Graphs for numerals were geometric shapes, while those for objects were often stylized pictures of the things they represented. Yet the system was a genuine logographic writing system generally adequate to economic and administrative purposes.
A greatly elaborated set of these clay shapes—some shaped like jars and some like various animals and occasionally inserted in clay envelopes—dates from 3500 bce, about the time of the rise of cities. Some of the envelopes have markings that correspond to the clay shapes inside. Moreover, these markings are more or less similar to the shapes drawn on clay tablets that date back to about 3100 bce and that are unambiguously related to the sumerian language. These markings are thought to constitute a logographic form of writing consisting of some 1,200 different characters representing numerals, names, and such material objects as cloth and cow. The theory advanced by Schmandt-Besserat to explain this transformation is that the clay shapes are tokens representing agricultural goods such as grain, sheep, and cattle and that they were used as a form of bookkeeping. The multiplication of types of tokens could correspond to the increase in the number of kinds of goods that were exchanged with the rise of urbanization in the 4th millennium bce. Tokens placed in an envelope might have constituted a sort of bill of lading or a record of indebtedness.
The tengwar, tolkiens, writing, system
Moreover, for languages such as Chinese and Japanese, which have simple syllabic structures and a great number of homophones, a writing system that depended on phonological structure, such as a syllabary or an dartmouth alphabet, would be extremely inefficient. It is with such factors in mind that late 20th-century accounts of writing systems stressed how many different orthographies may function efficiently, given the particular language they are used to represent. Just as linguists have abandoned the notion of progressive evolution of languages, with some languages ranking as more primitive than others, so historians of writing have come to treat existing orthographies as appropriate to the languages they represent. Nonetheless, all contemporary orthographies have a history of development, and there are many common features in these histories. It is unlikely that writing was invented only once and then borrowed by different cultural groups. While all Western writing systems may be traced back to the beginnings of symbol making in Sumer, there is no reason to believe that Asian writing systems were borrowed from the sumerian form. Consequently, there are two quite separate histories of writing, that of the writing system developed by the sumerians and that of the one developed by the Chinese.
The outline of the development of the. Sumerian writing system has been worked out by paleographers. It has long been known that the earliest writing system in the world was Sumerian script, which in its later stages was known as cuneiform. The earliest stages of development are still a matter of much speculation based on fragmentary evidence. The French American archaeologist Denise Schmandt-Besserat, building on a hypothesis advanced by the Assyriologist pierre Amiet of the louvre, demonstrated a series of small steps leading from the use of tokens for simple bookkeeping purposes to the development of written tablets on which graphs. Archaeologists have discovered in lower Mesopotamia (now southern Iraq) large numbers of small, distinctively shaped virginia clay objects. These are thought to date back to as early as 8000 bce, about the time that hunter-gatherer societies were giving way to an agricultural way of life.
It is a model of analytic thinking, breaking down perceptible qualities like syllables into more basic constituents. And because it is capable of conveying subtle differences in meaning, it has come to be used for the expression of a great many of the functions served by speech. The alphabet requires little of the reader beyond familiarity with its orthography. It allows the reader to decipher words newly encountered and permits the invention of spellings for new patterns of sound, including proper names (a problem that is formidable for nonalphabetic systems). Finally, its explicitness permits readers to make a relatively sharp distinction between the tasks of deciphering and interpreting. Less explicit orthographies require the reader first to grasp the meaning of a passage as a whole in order to decide which of several possible word meanings a particular graphic string represents.
It must be remembered, however, that efficiency depends not only on the nature of the writing system but also on the functions required of it by its users, for orthographies are invented to serve particular cultural purposes. Furthermore, an orthography invented to satisfy one purpose may acquire new applications. For instance, writing systems invented to serve mnemonic purposes were subsequently elaborated and used for communicative and archival purposes. Orthographies were not invented as art forms, but, once invented, they could serve aesthetic functions. Notions of explicitness of representation depend on the morphophonemic structure of the language. An alphabet was a notable advance for representing the Greek language but not necessarily for representing a semitic language.
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(Note that the last sentence implies that the "two primary lineages" you mention are really one lineage, though the question of the exact relationship between them, if any, is still debated.). History of writing systems, while spoken or signed language is a more or less universal human competence that has been characteristic of the species from the beginning and that is commonly acquired by human beings without systematic instruction, writing is a technology of relatively recent. Historical accounts of the evolution of writing systems have until recently concentrated on a single aspect, increased efficiency, with the, greek invention of the alphabet being regarded as the culmination of a long historical evolution. This efficiency is a product of a limited and manageable set of graphs that can express the full range of meanings in a language. As the British classicist Eric. Havelock wrote, at a stroke the Greeks provided a table of elements of linguistic sound not only manageable because of economy, but for the first time in the history of homo sapiens, also accurate. The polish revelation American Assyriologist Ignace gelb distinguished four stages in this evolution, beginning with picture reviews writing, which expressed ideas directly; followed by word-based writing systems; then by sound-based syllabic writing systems, including unvocalized syllabaries or consonantal systems; and concluding with the Greek invention of the. The invention of the alphabet is a major achievement of Western culture. It is also unique; the alphabet was invented only once, though it has been borrowed by many cultures.
The code the regulations cannot violate the. Constitution The courts interpretation of the constitution, the code, the regulations is like an extra law court Cases (Judicial Precedent). Download ppt "Justice. Ancient Laws Code of Hammurabi: 1760 bc first known system of written law over 250 harsh writer's laws Legal Code statements of what.". The answer seems to. Asko parpola, in his chapter on the Indus script in Daniels and Bright's. The world's Writing Systems (1996 says: "it has no obvious genetic affinity with any other known script. There is no connection whatsoever with the earliest scripts of historical south Asia, brahmi and Kharoshthi, which were created on the basis of Semitic and Greek alphabets".
parts of the constitution give specific laws that apply everywhere in the United States. Example: gives Congress the power to: Establish Post Offices post roads make all laws that are necessary proper for executing this task constitution 18, the constitution gives Congress permission to pass laws about a limited number of topics. Example: Congress passes laws to: Establish the usps direct the postal Service to provide efficient service at fair rates authorize the postal Service to adopt rules regulations. Code: Statutes 19, congress has the power to pass laws, but not to carry them out. They give each agency the power to create its own rules or regulations. Regulations have power similar to a law. Some regulations say what people can and cannot do Example: usps adopts regulations to: Establish rules for daily operations at Post Offices around the country limit what people are allowed to do on Post Office property create special postal programs Code of Federal Regulation.
Fairness 2, ancient Laws 3, code of Hammurabi: 1760 bc first known system of written law over 250 harsh laws Legal Code statements of what is legal illegal 4, ten Commandments found in the bible Created about essay 1200. Followed by hebrews in ancient Palestine moral Code statements of what is right wrong 5, draconian Law: 621 bc first written law of Athens, Greece very harsh Retribution Punishment Legal Code-what is right wrong according to the law 6, justinian Codes: 530 ad harsh Roman. British Common Law: 1100s. Most important source of American law Common law is law based on previous court decisions Established in many of the English colonies 8, magna carta: 1215 Limited the powers of the English king Granted new rights laws 9, english Bill of Rights: 1689. Further restricted the powers of the British monarchy holds many of the ideas that we now have in our Bill of Rights Freedom of Speech Right to fair trial no cruel unusual punishment 11, the Iroquois Constitution: 1500s Oral constitution of a confederacy. Constitution 12, iroquois Indians (fought in the French indian war) 13, ben Franklin was the author of this cartoon. 14, civil Rights Act of 1964 July 2, 1964 Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin prohibited discrimination in public facilities, in government, in employment It became illegal to compel segregation of the races in schools, housing, or hiring.
The language and writing system of ancient Sumeria
A system for writing one or more languages; a particular alphabetic, syllabic, logographic, or other scheme. For example, the latin alphabet or the cyrillic alphabet. The basic type of a system for writing languages. For example, alphabetic writing or logographic shredder writing. A system of characters used to write one or several languages. A method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols. Presentation on theme: "Justice. Ancient Laws Code of Hammurabi: 1760 bc first known system of written law over 250 harsh laws Legal Code statements of what."— Presentation transcript: 1, justice.