56 Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life. 57 On 1 may 305 ad, diocletian, as a result of a debilitating sickness taken in the winter of 304305 ad, announced his resignation. In a parallel ceremony in Milan, maximian did the same. 58 Lactantius states that Galerius manipulated the weakened diocletian into resigning, and forced him to accept Galerius' allies in the imperial succession. According to lactantius, the crowd listening to diocletian's resignation speech believed, until the very last moment, that diocletian would choose constantine and Maxentius (Maximian's son) as his successors. 59 It was not to be: Constantius and Galerius were promoted to augusti, while severus and Maximinus daia, galerius' nephew, were appointed their caesars respectively. Constantine and Maxentius were ignored.
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47 Because diocletian did not completely slumdog trust Constantius—none of the tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure constantius's best stress behavior. Constantine was nonetheless a prominent member of the court: he fought for diocletian and Galerius in Asia, and served in a variety of tribunates ; he campaigned against barbarians on the danube in 296 ad, and fought the persians under diocletian in Syria (297 AD) and under. 48 by late 305 ad, he had become a tribune of the first order, a tribunus ordinis primi. 49 Constantine had returned to nicomedia from the eastern front by the spring of 303 ad, in time to witness the beginnings of diocletian's " Great Persecution the most severe persecution of Christians in Roman history. 50 In late 302, diocletian and Galerius sent a messenger to the oracle of Apollo at Didyma with an inquiry about Christians. 51 Constantine could recall his presence at the palace when the messenger returned, when diocletian accepted his court's demands for universal persecution. 52 On 23 February 303 ad, diocletian ordered the destruction of Nicomedia's new church, condemned its scriptures to the flames, and had its treasures seized. In the months that followed, churches and scriptures were destroyed, Christians were deprived of official ranks, and priests were imprisoned. 53 It is unlikely that Constantine played any role in the persecution. 54 In his later writings he would attempt to present himself as an opponent of diocletian's "sanguinary edicts" against the "worshippers of God 55 but nothing indicates that he opposed it effectively at the time.
Diocletian's first appointee for the office of caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius, a native of Felix Romuliana. According to lactantius, galerius was a brutal, animalistic man. Although he shared the paganism of Rome's aristocracy, he seemed to them an alien figure, a semi-barbarian. 42 On 1 March, constantius was promoted to the office of caesar, and dispatched to gaul to fight the rebels Carausius and Allectus. 43 In spite of meritocratic overtones, the tetrarchy retained vestiges of hereditary privilege, 44 and Constantine became the prime candidate for future appointment as caesar as soon as his father took the position. Constantine went to the court of diocletian, where he lived as his father's heir presumptive. 45 In the east edit head from a statue of diocletian, augustus of the east Constantine received a formal education at diocletian's court, where he learned Latin literature, greek, and philosophy. 46 The cultural environment in plan Nicomedia was open, fluid and socially mobile, and Constantine could mix with intellectuals both pagan and Christian. He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a christian scholar of Latin in the city.
38 Maximian ruled in the west, from his capitals at Mediolanum ( Milan, italy ) or Augusta Treverorum ( Trier, germany while diocletian ruled in the east, from Nicomedia ( zmit, turkey ). The division was merely pragmatic: the Empire was called "indivisible" in official panegyric, 39 and both emperors could move freely throughout the Empire. 40 In 288, maximian appointed Constantius to serve as his praetorian prefect in gaul. Constantius left Helena to marry maximian's stepdaughter Theodora in 288 or 289. 41 diocletian divided the Empire again in 293 ad, appointing two caesars (junior emperors) to rule over further subdivisions of East and West. Each would be subordinate to their respective augustus (senior emperor) but would act with supreme authority in his assigned lands. This system would later be called the tetrarchy.
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Although not Christian, the epitomes paint a favourable image of Constantine, but omit reference to constantine's religious policies. 24 The panegyrici latini, a collection of panegyrics from the late third and early fourth centuries, provide valuable information on the politics and ideology of the tetrarchic period and the early life of Constantine. 25 Contemporary architecture, such as best the Arch of Constantine in Rome and palaces in Gamzigrad and Córdoba, 26 epigraphic remains, and the coinage of the era complement the literary sources. 27 Early life edit remains of the luxurious residence palace of Mediana, erected by constantine i near his birth town of naissus Flavius Valerius Constantinus, as he was originally named, was born in the city of naissus, (today niš, serbia) part of the dardania province. 29 His father was Flavius Constantius, an Illyrian, 30 31 and a native of Dardania province of moesia (later Dacia ripensis ). 32 Constantine probably spent little training time with his father 33 who was an officer in the roman army, part of the Emperor Aurelian 's imperial bodyguard. Being described as a tolerant and politically skilled man, 34 Constantius advanced through the ranks, earning the governorship of Dalmatia from Emperor diocletian, another of Aurelian's companions from Illyricum, in 284 or 285.
32 Constantine's mother was Helena, a greek woman of low social standing from Helenopolis of Bithynia. 35 It is uncertain whether she was legally married to constantius or merely his concubine. 36 His main language was Latin, and during his public speeches he needed Greek translators. 37 Constantine's parents and siblings, the dates in square brackets indicate the possession of minor titles In July 285 ad, diocletian declared Maximian, another colleague from Illyricum, his co-emperor. Each emperor would have his own court, his own military and administrative faculties, and each would rule with a separate praetorian prefect as chief lieutenant.
Contents sources edit constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure. 7 The fluctuations in his reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, 8 but they have been strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period 9 and are often one-sided; 10 no contemporaneous histories or biographies dealing with his life and rule have survived. 11 The nearest replacement is Eusebius 's Vita constantini, a mixture of eulogy and hagiography 12 written between 335 ad and circa 339 AD. 13 It extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues.
14 The vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, 15 and modern historians have frequently challenged its reliability. 16 The fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo constantini, 17 a work of uncertain date 18 which focuses on military and political events, to the neglect of cultural and religious matters. 19 Lactantius ' de mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of diocletian and the tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life. 20 The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates, sozomen, and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's later reign. 21 Written during the reign of Theodosius ii (408450 ad a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation and deliberate obscurity. 22 The contemporary writings of the orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius also survive, though their biases are no less firm. 23 The epitomes of Aurelius Victor ( de caesaribus eutropius ( Breviarium festus ( Breviarium and the anonymous author of the Epitome de caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period.
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Some modern scholars, however, debate his beliefs and even his comprehension of the Christian faith itself. Notes 2 The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the roman Empire. 5 he built a new imperial residence at byzantium and renamed the city constantinople after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" came later, and was never an official title). It became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, with the later eastern Roman Empire now being referred to as the byzantine Empire by historians. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and centuries after his reign. The medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. 6 Beginning with the renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his reign due to the rediscovery of anti-constantinian sources. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have salon attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship.
Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Notes 1 Although he lived most of his life as a pagan, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptised by equality eusebius of Nicomedia. He played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the roman empire. He called the first council of Nicaea in 325 that produced the statement of Christian belief known as the nicene Creed. The Church of the holy sepulchre was built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus ' tomb in Jerusalem and became the holiest place in Christendom. The papal claim to temporal power in the high Middle Ages was based on the supposed Donation of Constantine (now regarded as a forgery). He is venerated as a saint by the eastern Orthodox and Catholic Church. He has historically been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor and he did heavily promote the Christian Church.
and he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors. Maxentius and, licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. As emperor, constantine enacted administrative, financial, social, and military reforms to strengthen the empire. He restructured the government, separating civil and military authorities. To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. The roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the roman frontiers—the Franks, the Alamanni, the goths, and the sarmatians —even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century.
272 ad 22 may 337 ad also known. Constantine i, was, roman Emperor between 306 reviews and 337 AD. He was the son. Flavius Valerius Constantius, a, roman Army officer of, illyrian origins. His mother, helena was Greek. Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors, diocletian and, galerius.
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Roman emperor "Constantine" and "Constantine I" redirect here. For other uses, see. Constantine (disambiguation) and, constantine i (disambiguation). "Constantine of Constantinople" redirects here. For the patriarchs of Constantinople, see. Patriarch Constantine of Constantinople. Constantine the Great latin : presentation Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus ; Greek : Κωνσταντῖνος Μέγας; 27 February.