V čr bylo na konci února 1081 hlášených případů hiv pozitivity, nicméně zatím toho bylo, co se výzkumu hiv pozitivních týká, uděláno málo. Potribná ve své studii z roku 2002 týkající se kvality života (hlavně se zdravím související kvality života) odkryla velkou potřebu zabývat se kvalitou života hiv pozitivních osob žijících. Tato práce se skládá ze dvou hlavních částí teoretické a empirické. Teoretická část se zaměřuje na tři hlavní oblasti. První pohlíží na hiv/aids z obecné roviny popisuje historii, virus hiv, způsoby přenosu, diagnostiku, léčbu a jiná specifika. Dále se zabývá psychologickými aspekty hiv/aids, jako jsou např. Psychiatrické obtíže, které se mohou objevit po infekci virem hiv (např.
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Compared with the press findings from a previous research, in the czech Republic, done shortly after introducing haart, children have become an important value for many hiv positive people and they represent the area of biggest satisfaction. Such values and areas as health and sex are the most conflicting ones for those who are hiv positive. Employment status is not an important factor for those who are hiv negative but when one becomes infected the with hiv, it is one of the key factors that significantly influences quality of life. v - 7 Resumé tato studie zkoumá aspekty kvality života a to, jak je ovlivněna hiv/aids. V roce 2006 hiv/aids oslavil. Výročí od svého objevení. Posledních deset let tohoto čtvrtstoletí bylo věnováno výzkumu kvality života. Ačkoliv antiretrovirová terapie (haart) prodloužila hiv pozitivním osobám život, samo o sobě prodloužení života ke zvýšení jeho kvality nestačí. Proto je potřeba věnovat pozornost také kvalitě tohoto prodlouženého života. V české republice (ČR) se zatím uskutečnil pouze jeden výzkum věnovaný kvalitě života hiv pozitivních osob. Dle unaids je na světě virem hiv infikováno zhruba 40 milionů lidí.
Comparisons of data obtained by potribná with the findings from this study show that the biggest difference is in the importance of such values as health, sexuality and children. Potribná concluded that these were not important for hiv positives, but this study showed such values were more important for hiv positives than for hiv negatives, although satisfaction in the field of health and sex is significantly lower. The - iv - 6 biggest difference is that hiv positive people chose children as being a more important value than hiv negative people chose. Children are also the area where both hiv positive and hiv negative people score the highest scores out of all the areas of dźs. In conclusion, it is clear that hiv positivity represents a threat to quality of life and satisfaction with life. The areas of džs that were most affected are: health, financial situation, friends and relatives, sexuality and accommodation. That lined means hiv/aids is a disease that does not affect only health, but stigmatizes also socially and economically.
Hiv positive unemployed people scored significantly lower compared to those employed in following areas: health, work, financial situation, oneself, sexuality, friends and relatives, accommodation and the general satisfaction with life measured by džs. They even scored lower in all the scales of esk and their CD4 count was significantly lower, too. In the control group, there was no statistically significant with difference between those who are employed and unemployed (except of the area of satisfaction with work measured by džs). Between the hiv positive sample with the hiv negative control group, significant differences were found in these areas of džs: health, financial situation, sexuality, friends and relatives, and the general satisfaction with life. The areas of esk where hiv positive people scored significantly lower than hiv negative control group were: selfdistance, self-transcendence and freedom. There was no statistically significant difference in scale of responsibility. The hiv positive sample also scored significantly lower in seiqol. Seiqol turned out to be a sensitive method that distinguishes very well between hiv positive and hiv negative populations. There were no significant differences among any of the subgroups of both hiv positive and hiv negative sample but there were significant differences when hiv positive subgroups were compared with equivalent hiv negative subgroups (like hiv positive men with hiv negative men and so on).
This finding is consistent with results documented in similar or related studies elsewhere. Unlike foreign researches, this study did not yield any statistically significant correlation between viral load and general life satisfaction or satisfaction with health. Except for the difference in age, there was no significant difference in satisfaction with life between hiv positive men and women in this sample. On the other hand, among the hiv negative control group there were significant differences among men and women especially in the following domains: satisfaction with health, work, marriage and partnership, sex, and the general satisfaction with life (measured by džs ). Men were significantly more satisfied than women. Studies carried abroad document that hiv positive men tend to be more satisfied with their life than hiv positive women. That employment status and higher education contribute to better subjective quality of life. Researches done abroad have similar results. The most statistically significant differences appeared between the hiv positive employed and unemployed people.
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The advantage of about this method is that the level of one s intelligence does not influence. The research sample consists of 118 hiv positive respondents among whom are 88 men and 30 women. The number of men and women does not statistically differ from the percentage of hiv positive men and women in the whole czech hiv positive population. The sample was collected in six aids centers in the czech Republic, at Lighthouse, and during social activities organized for hiv positive people. Because none of the methods used in this study (to measure qol and LS) have been standardized on the czech population, there was a need to collect similar data (leaving out a few parameters viral load, cd4, years of living with hiv) from a control. The hiv positive population in the czech Republic is quite specific (it consists of homosexual men, ivd users, prostitutes, homoprostitutes).
There is also a significant number of people without any peculiar characteristics. The statistical analysis of the hiv positive sample showed fed the greatest difference between the employed and unemployed hiv positive czechs. It was extremely difficult to create a hiv negative control group that fits all the characteristics (except being hiv positive) of the hiv positive population. Consequently, since the hiv positive sample showed the greatest difference between the employed and unemployed hiv positive czechs, employment status was used as a predominant parameter in the creation of the control group. iii - 5 The statistical analysis was done using spss for Windows, and it brought up the following results: That, according to this study, there is a positive correlation between CD4 count and the subjective satisfaction with health.
Squala and whoqol were standardized three years later. In addition, there were very few methods that had been translated into the czech language. Because of these limitations the most appropriate methods seemed to be džs, esk and seiqol. One of the aims was to find out which areas of qol are most affected by hiv/aids, and Fahrenberg s džs perfectly measures up to this demand. It consists of ten fields.
They are satisfaction with: health, work, financial situation, leisure time, marriage and partnership, children, oneself, sexuality, friends and relatives, and accommodation. It is standardized on the german population and measures satisfaction in the domains above on a scale of 7 (minimum score) to 49 (maximum score). On the other hand, esk (Existential Scale) measures one s ability to experience meaning of life and the way four existential factors (responsibility, selftranscendence, self-distance, and freedom) influence quality of life, mental health and coping with illness or suffering. The advantage of this method is its hidden validity that makes it impossible for one to skew the response according to social desirability. The third method, seiqol, allows one to list one s five most important goals in life and the level of satisfaction with their fulfillment. It also contains a visual analogue scale that measures one s general satisfaction with life (0 is the minimum and 10 cm the maximum).
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The outcomes from the researches are models, predictors, and factors of qol, wb and. The last part of the theoretical treatment deals with quality of life of hiv positive people. It describes which factors influence it and in what ways, among them, gender, employment status, antiretroviral therapy and its side effects, immune parameters (CD4 count and viral load education, and many others. What all this essays comes to is that hiv/aids is an incurable, predominantly sexually transmitted disease that causes a number of health impairments that lead to death. It does not compromise only the area of health but it also socially stigmatizes those who suffer from it and brings about many other stressors such as database the possibility of work loss, social isolation, economical and financial burden, and. The empirical part corresponds to the aims of this study. They are: (a) to measure qol of hiv positive czechs and to find out what domains of their life satisfaction are the most compromised, (b) to compare the results with the previous research done by potribná in the czech republic, (c) to compare the results. ii - 4 In 2003, when the aims of this study were set, there were no qol methods that had been standardized on the czech population.
First, it looks at hiv/aids from a general point of view it describes its history, the hiv virus, ways of transmission, diagnostic, treatment and other specifics. It also deals with the psychological aspects of hiv/aids. That is, psychiatric disorders that may progressively appear following hiv infection (such as depressive symptoms, anxiety, and dementia) and how they challenge one s quality of life, as well as psychological stressors that hiv positive people face. Secondly, it examines the concepts of quality of life (qol well-being (WB) and life satisfaction (ls as they are generally understood. It defines the three constructs and explains the differences between them. In addition, it provides a survey of the methods that are used to measure them. For instance, mos-sf-36 is a gold standard that measures health related quality of life (hrqol but it is yet to be reviews standardized on the czech population. This section also includes a survey of some researches that have been done on the three constructs, qol, wb, and.
(haart) has prolonged hiv positive people s lives, this alone is not sufficient to make one s life good. Consequently, it has become necessary to pay attention to the quality of this extended life. There has been, so far, only one research dedicated to qol among hiv positive people in the czech Republic. According to unaids, about forty million people are infected with hiv globally. By the end of February 2008, the czech Republic had 1081 reported cases; yet very little has been done in the area of research on qol among czechs who are hiv positive. One study done by potribná in 2002, on qol (mainly health) after starting haart, uncovered a strong need for research on the qol among people living with hiv in the czech Republic. This work consists of two main parts, one theoretical and the other empirical. The theoretical part focuses on three main issues.
Pořád mám pocit, že to dobré teprve přijde, tak budu čekat na další film, stejně jako tomu bylo doposud, ale objeví se to dobré? Mimo toho musím zmínit epic sekvence ve warp speed a obecně akční scény, nebolely z toho oči, ale každý si přišel na své. Jediné co jsem moc nepochopila byla role blond doktorky - kirk se s ní nevyspal, nikoho nezradila, nezatáhla za důležitou páčku, jenom byla dcerou zlýho pána. Takže co s ní vlastně? To všechno mi přijde zbytečně emotivní a jen to dodává pocitu, který bych odborně nazvala no a co teda. hvězdičky dávám hlavně Khanovi benedictovi. Nechte ho, prosím, hrát víc bad guys, write to mi byla tedy podívaná - palce nahoru! 1 obsah summary / resum úvod. Teoretická část hiv/aids obecně historický pohled Virus hiv infekce virem hiv cesty přenosu Projevy hiv infekce, hiv onemocnění, aids situace v české republice Psychologické aspekty hiv pozitivity Specifika hiv onemocnění reakce na sdělení hiv pozitivity vztah psychiky a imunity přehled stresorů působících na psychiku hiv.
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Ale tak teda čtyři. Zkrátka a dobře, tos se nic nevyrovná a tohle je hezké, milé, potěší, ale nevytrhne. Jediný koho mám stejně ráda v téhle verzi jako v tos je bones v brilantním zpodobnění karla Urbana, bohužel ten zbytek se mnou nic nedělá. Vztah Uhury se Spockem mi přijde až patetický a zbytek postav je takový. Dialog Spocka se Spockem (jakkoli nechápu jeho smysl ve london filmu) mě jen utvrdil v tom, že můj Spock je zkrátka nimoy, ač mám Zachary quinta hodně ráda. co se týče filmu a ne jeho postav, ke kterým mám holt svůj vztah, bylo to fajn, mělo to smysl, navazovalo to a člověk chápal co se děje. Ale co víc, stejně jako v jedničce. Jo hezký, padouch a hrdina, dojemnej moment, hm hm a dál?