Think of it as the equivalent to making small talk before you launch into a deeper conversation. For example, "I hope you've been having a wonderful fall. The trees in my neighborhood are more brilliant than they've ever been before. I think we're in for a cold winter, though." 2, share news and personal details. Now it's time to get to the meat of the letter, your purpose for writing. Why are you opening this correspondence?
The lost Art
Method 2, drafting the body 1, begin with some pleasantries. The first paragraph of a friendly letter is usually warm and lighthearted. It's a way to set the tone of the letter, letting the recipient know that what's to follow will be more friendly than businesslike or serious. Use the first few lines to say an extended hello, tell a joke, or reference the season. "How are you doing?" or "How have you been?" are common business ways to start a letter. Asking a question helps make the letter feel like part of a longer conversation. If you'd like a reply to your letter, feel free to pepper it with questions throughout. You can use the first paragraph to inquire more deeply about the recipient's life. For example, "I hope little julie has been enjoying wave kindergarten. I can't believe she's gotten so big!". Referencing the time of year is another common letter opening.
If you tend to like to write in a slightly formal style, using "Dear" in your salutation is a nice choice. It sounds typical, but think about it: calling someone "dear" is actually very sweet, and indicates that you care about him or her. However, you don't have to read into it; "dear" is as appropriate for about a letter to your best friend as it is for a letter to an acquaintance you just met. For a letter that is more casual in tone, consider beginning it with "hi, name" or "Hello, name." This greeting is appropriate for a friend or relative, but don't begin a business letter this way; it's a bit too casual. Write a more personal greeting for someone with whom you are intimate, or want. For example, "Dearest name "My name" or "Sweet name.". Be sure to end your greeting with a comma. It is also formally correct to begin the body of the letter on the next line.
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn,. A handbook of media and communication research: qualitative and quantitative methodologies (Routledge, 2013) Paxson, peyton. Mass Communications and Media studies: An Introduction (Bloomsbury, 2010) poe, marshall. A history of Communications: Media and Society From the evolution of Speech to the Internet (Cambridge University Press; 2011) 352 pages; Documents how successive forms of communication are embraced and, in turn, foment change in social institutions. Mass Communications (1963) Schramm, wilbur,. Mass Communications: a reader (1960) Simonson, peter. Refiguring Mass Communication: a history (2010).
The dying Art of Hand
In the presentation 1790s the first fixed semaphore systems emerged in Europe however it was not until the 1830s that electrical telecommunication systems started to appear. Timeline edit main article: Timeline of communication technology see also edit references edit paul Martin Lester, visual Communication with Infotrac: essay Images with Messages, thomson Wadsworth, 2005, isbn, google Print:.48 according to a claim by michael Rappenglueck, of the University of Munich (2000) 1 david. "Linguistics 201: The Invention of Writing". Further reading edit Asante, molefi kete, yoshitaka miike, and Jing Yin, eds. The global intercultural communication reader (Routledge, 2014) Berger, Arthur Asa.
Media and communication research methods: An introduction to qualitative and quantitative approaches (sage 2013) Burke, peter. A social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to diderot (2000) Burke, peter. A social History of Knowledge ii: From the Encyclopaedia to wikipedia (2012) de mooij, marieke. "Theories of Mass Communication and Media effects Across Cultures." in Human and Mediated Communication around the world (Springer 2014) pp 355393. Esser, Frank, and Thomas Hanitzsch, eds. The handbook of comparative communication research (Routledge, 2012) Gliek, james (2011). The Information: a history, a theory, a flood.
About 2600 BC cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian language. Finally, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. By the 26th century bc, this script had been adapted to another Mesopotamian language, akkadian, and from there to others such as Hurrian, and Hittite. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian. The Chinese script may have originated independently of the middle eastern scripts, around the 16th century BC (early Shang Dynasty out of a late neolithic Chinese system of proto-writing dating back. The pre-columbian writing systems of the Americas, including Olmec and mayan, are also generally believed to have had independent origins.
Alphabet edit further information: History of the alphabet a specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by william Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. The first pure alphabets (properly, " abjads mapping single symbols to single phonemes, but not necessarily each phoneme to a symbol) emerged around 2000 bc in Ancient Egypt, but by then alphabetic principles had already been incorporated into Egyptian hieroglyphs for a millennium (see middle Bronze. By 2700 bc, egyptian writing had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names. However, although seemingly alphabetic in nature, the original Egyptian uniliterals were not a system and were never used by themselves to encode Egyptian speech. In the middle Bronze age an apparently "alphabetic" system is thought by some to have been developed in central Egypt around 1700 BC for or by semitic workers, but we cannot read these early writings and their exact nature remains open to interpretation. Over the next five centuries this Semitic "alphabet" (really a syllabary like phoenician writing ) seems to have spread north. All subsequent alphabets around the world citation needed with the sole exception of Korean Hangul have either descended from it, or been inspired by one of its descendants. History of telecommunication edit further information: History of telecommunication The history of telecommunication - the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication - began thousands of years ago with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, america and parts.
Writing a business, letter
The oldest-known forms of writing were primarily logographic in nature, based on pictographic and ideographic elements. Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic, syllabic and alphabetic (or segmental however, all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions, often making it difficult to categorise a system uniquely. The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary in with margaret the beginning of the Bronze age in the late neolithic of the late 4000 BC. The first writing system is generally believed to have been invented in pre-historic Sumer and developed by the late 3000's bc into cuneiform. Egyptian hieroglyphs, and the undeciphered Proto-Elamite writing system and Indus Valley script also date to this era, though a few scholars have questioned the Indus Valley script's status as a writing system. The original Sumerian writing system was derived from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the 4th millennium bc, this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced about bc by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform at first only for logograms, but developed to include phonetic elements by the 2800 BC.
Ideograms, on the other hand, could convey more abstract concepts, so that for example an ideogram of two sticks can mean not only 'legs' but also a verb 'to walk'. Because some ideas are universal, many different cultures developed similar ideograms. For example, an eye with a tear means 'sadness' in Native american ideograms in California, as it does for the aztecs, the early Chinese and the Egyptians. Citation needed Ideograms were precursors of logographic writing systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese characters. Citation needed Examples of ideographical proto-writing systems, thought not to contain language-specific information, include the vinca script breastfeeding (see also tărtăria tablets ) and the early Indus script. Citation needed In both cases there are claims of decipherment of linguistic content, without wide acceptance. Citation needed Writing edit further information: History of writing 26th century bc sumerian cuneiform script in Sumerian language, listing gifts to the high priestess of Adab on the occasion of her election. One of the earliest examples of human writing.
stones has survived to modern. 4, pictograms edit further information: Pictograms A pictogram (pictograph) is a symbol representing a concept, object, activity, place or event by illustration. Pictography is a form of proto-writing whereby ideas are transmitted through drawing. Pictographs were the next step in the evolution of communication: the most important difference between petroglyphs and pictograms is that petroglyphs are simply showing an event, but pictograms are telling a story about the event, thus they can for example be ordered chronologically. Pictograms were used by various ancient cultures all over the world since around 9000 bc, when tokens marked with simple pictures began to be used to label basic farm produce, and become increasingly popular around. They were the basis of cuneiform 5 and hieroglyphs, and began to develop into logographic writing systems around 5000 BC. Ideograms edit further information: Ideograms The beginning of the lord's Prayer in míkmaq hieroglyphic writing. The text reads Nujjinen wásóq "Our father / in heaven". Pictograms, in turn, evolved into ideograms, graphical symbols that represent an idea. Their ancestors, the pictograms, could represent only something resembling their form: therefore a pictogram of a circle could represent a sun, but not concepts like 'heat 'light 'day' or 'Great God of the sun'.
The oldest known cave painting is located within. Chauvet cave, dated to around 30,000,. 1, these paintings contained increasing amounts of information: people may have created the first the calendar as far back as 15,000 years ago. The connection between drawing and writing is further shown by linguistics : in, ancient Egypt and, ancient Greece the concepts and words of drawing and writing were one and the same (Egyptian: 's-sh Greek: 'graphein. 3, contents, petroglyphs edit, further information: Petroglyphs. The next advancement in the history of communications came with the production of petroglyphs, carvings into a rock surface. It took about 20,000 years for homo sapiens to move from the first cave paintings to the first petroglyphs, which are dated to approximately the neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.
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Since prehistoric times, significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) have evolved in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with the origin of speech approximately yardage 500,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago. The imperfection of speech, which nonetheless allowed easier dissemination of ideas and stimulated inventions, eventually resulted in the creation of new forms of communications, improving both the range at which people could communicate and the longevity of the information. All of those inventions were based on the key concept of the symbol. The oldest known symbols created for the purpose of communication were cave paintings, a form of rock art, dating to the, upper Paleolithic age.